Single Page Chunked

MacPorts Guide

Mark Duling

Dr. Michael A Maibaum

Will Barton


1. Introduction
2. Installing MacPorts
2.1. Install X11
2.2. Install Xcode
2.3. Install MacPorts
2.4. MacPorts Upgrade
2.5. Uninstall
2.6. MacPorts and the Shell
3. Using MacPorts
3.1. The port Command
3.2. Port Variants
3.3. Common Tasks
3.4. Port Binaries
4. Portfile Development
4.1. Portfile Introduction
4.2. Creating a Portfile
4.3. Example Portfiles
4.4. Port Variants
4.5. Patch Files
4.6. Local Portfile Repositories
4.7. Portfile Best Practices
4.8. MacPorts' buildbot
5. Portfile Reference
5.1. Global Keywords
5.2. Global Variables
5.3. Port Phases
5.4. Dependencies
5.5. Variants
5.6. Tcl Extensions
5.7. StartupItems
5.8. Livecheck / Distcheck
5.9. PortGroups
6. MacPorts Internals
6.1. File Hierarchy
6.2. Configuration Files
6.3. Port Images
6.4. APIs and Libs
6.5. The MacPorts Registry
7. MacPorts Project
7.1. Using Trac for tickets
7.2. Contributing to MacPorts
7.3. Port Update Policies
7.4. MacPorts Membership
7.5. The PortMgr Team
8. MacPorts Guide Terms
Glossary

MacPorts is an easy to use system for compiling, installing, and managing open source software. MacPorts may be conceptually divided into two main parts: the infrastructure, known as MacPorts base, and the set of available ports. A MacPorts port is a set of specifications contained in a Portfile that defines an application, its characteristics, and any files or special instructions required to install it. This allows you to use a single command to tell MacPorts to automatically download, compile, and install applications and libraries. But using MacPorts to manage your open source software provides several other significant advantages. For example, MacPorts:

  • Installs automatically any required support software, known as dependencies, for a given port.

  • Provides for uninstalls and upgrades for installed ports.

  • Confines ported software to a private sandbox that keeps it from intermingling with your operating system and its vendor-supplied software to prevent them from becoming corrupted.

  • Allows you to create pre-compiled binary installers of ported applications to quickly install software on remote computers without compiling from source code.

MacPorts is developed on Mac OS X, though it is designed to be portable so it can work on other Unix-like systems, especially those descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

The following notational conventions are used in the MacPorts Guide to distinguish between terminal input/output, file text, and other special text types.

  • Terminal I/O and file text.

    %% Commands to be typed into a terminal window.
    Command output to a terminal window.
    File text.
  • Other special text types.

    A hyperlink: spontaneous combustion.

    A file: /var/log/system.log.

    A command: ifconfig.

    An option: port install

This chapter shows you how to install MacPorts and its prerequisites step-by-step. Note that the sections about installing X11 and installing Xcode are Mac OS X specific. If you wish to install MacPorts on another platform, first make sure you have X11 and gcc installed, and then skip ahead to installing MacPorts from source and continue to the end of the chapter.

X11.app allows you to run applications using the X Window System, which is the traditional display server on most other UNIX like systems. Additionally, the Xquartz project provides an updated version of the X server.

Note

As of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, X11.app is included in the default installation. You can just skip this section for any later version of Mac OS X.

  1. Insert the Mac OS X Install Disk and run the package named Optional Installs.

  2. At the software selection window expand the Applications category and click the check box beside X11 (and nothing else).

  3. Click Install to install X11.

Before launching an X11 application on Mac OS X 10.4, you must open X11.app and start an xterm session. Later OS versions should launch X11.app automatically when an X11 application is run from the Terminal.

%% xterm

After the X11 session window opens, you may launch X11 apps from another terminal window. See Optional X11 Settings if you wish to launch X11 applications from an X11 session window.

Note

X11 and the X11SDK (from Xcode Tools) are both required for X11 apps. To verify the presence of both, check for files com.apple.pkg.X11User.bom & com.apple.pkg.X11SDKLeo.bom in /Library/Receipts/boms/. On Mac OS X 10.4, look for files X11User.pkg & X11SDK.pkg in /Library/Receipts/.

To launch X11 applications directly from an X11 window (instead of a regular terminal window), you need to make it so X11 sessions opened using the menu bar respect your .profile file.

  1. Open X11 and select Customize Menu ... from the Applications menu.

  2. Double-click the menu item Terminal and change: xterm to xterm -ls

  3. Click Done to save the change.

Xcode is a package provided by Apple containing compilers, libraries and additional tools required to develop applications for Mac OS X.

Note

Always make sure to install the latest available version of Xcode for your Mac OS X release; using outdated versions of Xcode may cause port install failures. Also note that Xcode is not updated via Mac OS X's Software Update utility on OS versions prior to 10.6, and is updated via the Mac App Store on 10.7.

Follow the instructions for your version of Mac OS X:

Download the latest version of Xcode from the Apple developer website or get it using the Mac App Store.

Once you have Xcode installed, open a terminal and run xcode-select --install.

Download the latest version of Xcode from the Apple developer website or get it using the Mac App Store.

Xcode 4.3 and later do not automatically install the command line tools, but MacPorts requires them. To install them, open the Xcode application, go to the Preferences window, to the Downloads section, and click the Install button next to Command Line Tools. Be sure to return to this window after every Xcode upgrade to ensure that the command line tools are also upgraded.

If you wish to create Installer packages with port pkg, you will also need to install PackageMaker, which is in the Auxiliary Tools for Xcode package as of Xcode 4.3. The download page for this package can be opened via the Xcode -> Open Developer Tool -> More Developer Tools... menu item. After downloading and mounting the disk image, drag the PackageMaker application to your /Applications directory.

If you are using Mac OS X 10.6, there are two branches of Xcode which could be considered to be the latest, 3.2.x and 4.x. Xcode 4 costs money, but Xcode 3 is still available free of charge. There are two options for downloading it:

  1. Xcode 3.2.2 - smaller download, but you will need to run Software Update after installing to get the latest version.

  2. Xcode 3.2.6 and iOS SDK 4.3 - includes iOS SDK which is not needed for MacPorts.

You may also be able to install Xcode 3.2 from your Mac OS X 10.6 DVD and then run Software Update to get the latest version.

Ensure that those of the following options that are available in the installer for your version of Xcode are selected:

  • UNIX Development
  • System Tools
  • X11 SDK
  • Command Line Support

If you have an earlier release of Mac OS X, you may download the latest version of Xcode for OS X 10.5 (v3.1.4) or for 10.4 (v2.5).

Ensure that those of the following options that are available in the installer for your version of Xcode are selected:

  • UNIX Development
  • System Tools
  • X11 SDK
  • Command Line Support

If you are using Mac OS X, you should install MacPorts using the Mac OS X package installer unless you do not wish to install it to /opt/local/, the default MacPorts location, or if you wish to install a pre-release version of MacPorts base. However, if you wish to install multiple copies of MacPorts or install MacPorts on another OS platform, you must install MacPorts from the source code.

Note

Though a distinction is made between pre-release and release versions of MacPorts base, the ports collection supports no such distinction or versioning. The selfupdate command installs the latest port revisions from Subversion (at a slight delay), and updates MacPorts base to the latest released version.

The Mac OS X package installer automatically installs MacPorts, sets the shell environment, and runs a selfupdate operation to update the ports tree and MacPorts base with the latest release.

  1. Download the latest MacPorts-2.2.1-....pkg installer from the MacPorts download directory. Here are direct links for the latest versions of OS X:

    OS X 10.7 Lion:
    MacPorts-2.2.1-10.7-Lion.pkg
    OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion:
    MacPorts-2.2.0-10.8-MountainLion.pkg
    OS X 10.9 Mavericks:
    MacPorts-2.2.1-10.9-Mavericks.pkg
  2. Double-click the downloaded package installer to perform the default easy install.

  3. After this step you are done already, MacPorts is now installed and your shell environment was set up automatically by the installer. To confirm the installation is working as expected, now try using the port command in a new terminal window.

    %% port version
    Version: 2.2.1

    In case of problems such as command not found, consult Section 2.6, “MacPorts and the Shell”. Otherwise, please skip the remainder of this chapter and continue with Chapter 3, Using MacPorts in this guide.

If you installed MacPorts using the package installer, skip this section. To install MacPorts from the source code, follow the steps below.

  1. Download and extract the MacPorts 2.2.1 tarball. Either do so using your browser and the Finder, or use the given commands in a terminal window.

    %% curl -O https://distfiles.macports.org/MacPorts/MacPorts-2.2.1.tar.bz2
    %% tar xf MacPorts-2.2.1.tar.bz2
  2. Afterwards, perform the commands shown in the terminal window. If you wish to use a path other than /opt/local, follow the instructions for installing multiple copies of MacPorts instead.

    %% cd MacPorts-2.2.1/
    %% ./configure
    %% make
    %% sudo make install
  3. Please continue with Section 2.6, “MacPorts and the Shell” to set up your shell environment.

If you installed MacPorts using the package installer, skip this section.

There are times when some may want to run MacPorts from a version newer than the current stable release. Maybe there's a new feature that you'd like to use, or it fixes an issue you've encountered, or you just like to be on the cutting edge. These steps explain how to run completely from trunk, using only Subversion to keep MacPorts up to date.

  1. Check out MacPorts source

    Pick a location to store a working copy of the MacPorts code. For this example, /opt/mports will be used, but you can put the source anywhere. This example will create /opt/mports/trunk containing everything needed for MacPorts.

    %% mkdir -p /opt/mports
    %% cd /opt/mports
    %% svn checkout https://svn.macports.org/repository/macports/trunk

    Note

    You only really need the base subdirectory to run MacPorts, so you can avoid checking out the rest if you don't want to use a Subversion-based ports tree (see Step 3 below). To just get the base directory, append /base to the end of the svn checkout command above. The resulting directory will then be /opt/mports/base

  2. Build and Install MacPorts

    MacPorts uses autoconf and makefiles for installation. These commands will build and install MacPorts to /opt/local. You can add the --prefix option to ./configure to relocate MacPorts to another directory if needed.

    %% cd /opt/mports/trunk/base
    %% ./configure --enable-readline
    %% make
    %% sudo make install
    %% make distclean
  3. (Optional) Configure MacPorts to use port information from Subversion

    This step is useful if you want to do port development. Open /opt/local/etc/macports/sources.conf in a text editor. The last line which should look like this:

    rsync://rsync.macports.org/release/tarballs/ports.tar [default]

    Change it to point to the working copy you checked out:

    file:///opt/mports/trunk/dports [default]

    Now MacPorts will look for portfiles in the working copy.

  4. Environment

    You should setup your PATH and other environment options according to Section 2.6, “MacPorts and the Shell”.

Occasionally a MacPorts developer may wish to install more than one MacPorts instance on the same host. Only one copy of MacPorts may use the default prefix /opt/local, so for additional installations use the option --prefix as shown below. It's also recommended to change the applications dir using --with-applications-dir to avoid conflicts in /Applications/MacPorts.

Note

The first command temporarily removes the standard MacPorts binary paths because they must not be present while installing a second instance.

%% export PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin
%% MP_PREFIX=/opt/macports-test
%% ./configure --prefix=$MP_PREFIX --with-applications-dir=$MP_PREFIX/Applications
%% make
%% sudo make install

MacPorts base upgrades are performed automatically (when a newer release is available) during a selfupdate operation. To upgrade a copy of MacPorts that was installed from source to the newer release of the source code, simply repeat the source install with the newer version of the MacPorts source code.

Uninstalling MacPorts can be a drastic step, and depending on the issue you are experiencing, you may not need to do so. If you are unsure, ask on the macports-users mailing list first.

If you need to uninstall MacPorts, and your port command is functioning, first uninstall all the installed ports by running this command in the Terminal:

%% sudo port -fp uninstall installed

All that will be left in your installation prefix now will be files that were not registered to any port. This includes configuration files, databases, any files which MacPorts renamed in order to allow a forced installation or upgrade, and the base MacPorts software itself. You may wish to save your configuration files (most are in ${prefix}/etc), databases, or any other unique data by moving it aside.

To remove all remaining traces of MacPorts, run the following command in the Terminal. If you have changed prefix, applications_dir or frameworks_dir from their default values, then replace /opt/local with your prefix, replace /Applications/MacPorts with your applications_dir, and/or add your frameworks_dir to the list, respectively.

%% sudo rm -rf \
    /opt/local \
    /Applications/DarwinPorts \
    /Applications/MacPorts \
    /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.* \
    /Library/Receipts/DarwinPorts*.pkg \
    /Library/Receipts/MacPorts*.pkg \
    /Library/StartupItems/DarwinPortsStartup \
    /Library/Tcl/darwinports1.0 \
    /Library/Tcl/macports1.0 \
    ~/.macports

If you use a shell other than bash (perhaps tcsh), you may need to adjust the above to fit your shell's syntax. Also note that depending on which version of MacPorts you have and which ports you have installed, not all of the above paths will exist on your system. This is OK.

MacPorts requires that some environment variables be set in the shell. When MacPorts is installed using the Mac OS X package installer, a postflight script is run after installation that automatically adds or modifies a shell configuration file in your home directory, ensuring that it defines variables according to the rules described in the following section. Those installing MacPorts from source code must modify their environment manually using the rules as a guide.

Depending on your shell and which configuration files already exist, the installer may use .profile, .bash_login, .bash_profile, .tcshrc, or .cshrc.

The postflight script automatically sets the PATH variable, and optionally the MANPATH and DISPLAY variables according to the rules described below. If a current shell configuration file exists at installation time it is renamed to mpsaved_$timestamp. Those installing MacPorts from source code must modify their environment manually using the rules as a guide.

  • Required: PATH variable

    This variable is set by the postflight script to append the MacPorts executable paths to the default path as shown. The MacPorts paths are appended at the front of PATH so the MacPorts libraries will take precedence over vendor-supplied libraries for ported software at runtime.

    export PATH=/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/sbin:$PATH

    Note

    The user environment's $PATH is not in effect while ports are being installed, because the $PATH is scrubbed before ports are installed, and restored afterwards. To change the search path for locating system executables (rsync, tar, etc.) during port installation, see the macports.conf file variable binpath. But changing this variable is for advanced users only, and is not generally needed or recomended.

  • Optional: MANPATH variable

    Condition: If prior to MacPorts installation a MANPATH variable exists in a current .profile that contains neither the value ${prefix}/share/man, nor any empty values, the postflight script sets the MANPATH variable as shown below. Otherwise, the MANPATH variable is omitted.

    export MANPATH=/opt/local/share/man:$MANPATH

    Here are some examples of paths that contain empty values:

    /usr/share/man:
    :/usr/share/man
    /usr/share/man::/usr/X11R6/man
  • Optional: DISPLAY variable

    Condition: If installing on a Mac OS X version earlier than 10.5 (Leopard), and if a shell configuration file exists at time of MacPorts installation without a DISPLAY variable, the postflight script sets a DISPLAY variable as shown below. The DISPLAY variable is always omitted on Mac OS X 10.5 or higher.

    export DISPLAY=:0.0

To verify that the file containing the MacPorts variables is in effect, type env in the terminal to verify the current environment settings after the file has been created. Example output for the env command is shown below.

Note

Changes to shell configuration files do not take effect until a new terminal session is opened.

MANPATH=
TERM_PROGRAM=Apple_Terminal
TERM=xterm-color
SHELL=/bin/bash
TERM_PROGRAM_VERSION=237
USER=joebob
__CF_USER_TEXT_ENCODING=0x1FC:0:0
PATH=/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/sbin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin
PWD=/Users/joebob
EDITOR=/usr/bin/pico
SHLVL=1
HOME=/Users/joebob
LOGNAME=joebob
DISPLAY=:0.0
SECURITYSESSIONID=b0cea0
_=/usr/bin/env

You can set an environment variable in order to use your favorite text editor with edit option of port command.

MacPorts will check MP_EDITOR, VISUAL and EDITOR in this order, allowing you to either use a default editor shared with other programs (VISUAL and EDITOR) or a Macports' specific one (MP_EDITOR).

For example, to use the nano editor, add this line to your bash config:

export EDITOR=/usr/bin/nano

To use the user-friendly GUI editor TextWrangler (installation required), add this line:

export EDITOR=/usr/bin/edit

To keep a command-line text editor as default while using a graphic editor with portfiles, add this:

      export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vi
      export MP_EDITOR=/usr/bin/edit

This chapter describes using the port command, port variants, common tasks and port binaries.

The MacPorts port command is the main utility used to interact with MacPorts. It is used to update Portfiles and the MacPorts infrastructure, and install and manage ports.

The help action shows some brief information about the specified action, or if no action is specified, shows basic usage information for the port command in general.

%% port help selfupdate
Usage: selfupdate --nosync

Upgrade MacPorts itself and run the sync target

The selfupdate action should be used regularly to sync the local ports tree with the global MacPorts ports repository so you will have the latest port versions. It also checks for new revisions of the MacPorts infrastructure, called MacPorts base, and upgrades it when necessary.

Note

Selfupdate runs only on Mac OS X. If you are running MacPorts on another platform, you must use the sync action to update the ports tree; to update MacPorts base you must manually install a newer version from source.

%% sudo port selfupdate

Use the debug flag for verbose output.

%% sudo port -d selfupdate
DEBUG: Rebuilding the MacPorts base system if needed.
DEBUG: Synchronizing ports tree(s)
Synchronizing from rsync://rsync.macports.org/release/ports/
DEBUG: /usr/bin/rsync -rtzv --delete-after rsync://rsync.macports.org/release/ports/
receiving file list ... done

[ ... trimmed ... ]


The MacPorts installation is not outdated and so was not updated
DEBUG: Setting ownership to root
selfupdate done!

If selfupdate detects that a newer version of MacPorts base is available, it automatically updates the installed copy of MacPorts base to the latest released version. In that case, you will see the upgrade Makefile execute, and when it finishes you will see this message:

DEBUG: Updating using rsync
receiving file list ... done

Congratulations, you have successfully installed the MacPorts system.

The sync action performs a subset of selfupdate actions. It synchronizes the ports tree, as does selfupdate, but it does not check for upgrades to MacPorts base. On Mac OS X, unless there is a special reason not to do so, you should run selfupdate.

Note

For platforms other than Mac OS X, sync is the only way to get port updates because selfupdate is supported only on Mac OS X.

The list action lists the currently available version of the specified ports, or if no ports are specified, displays a list of all available ports. The list of available ports is very long, so use search if you know a port's name or part of it.

%% port list

The search action allows finding ports by partial matches of the name or description. Other fields can be matched against, and matched in different ways, by using options. Run port help search for details.

%% port search rrd
php5-rrdtool @1.0 (php, net, devel)
    PHP 5 glue for rrdtool

rrdtool @1.4.4 (net)
    Round Robin Database

Found 2 ports.

The info action is used to get information about a port: description, maintainer, etc.

%% port info flowd
flowd @0.9 (net)
Variants:             universal

Description:          flowd is a small, fast and secure NetFlow collector.
Homepage:             http://www.mindrot.org/flowd.html

Platforms:            darwin
License:              unknown
Maintainers:          nomaintainer@macports.org

The deps action shows you the dependencies of a port; dependencies are explicitly declared in Portfiles.

%% port deps apache2
Full Name: apache2 @2.2.17_0+preforkmpm
Library Dependencies: apr, apr-util, expat, openssl, pcre

The variants action allows you to check what variations of a port are available before you install it. Variants are a way for port authors to provide options that may be invoked at install time. See Invoking Port Variants below to install ports that have variants.

%% port variants nmap
nmap has the variants:
   no_pcre: build without pcre support
   no_ssl: build without ssl support
   universal: Build for multiple architectures
   zenmap: build zenmap in addition to nmap

The action install is used to install a port. See Invoking Port Variants below to install ports that have variants.

%% sudo port install nmap

Note

You may break up a port's installation into smaller steps for troubleshooting by passing port a prior installation phase such as fetch, configure, build, or destroot. See section Port Phases for a complete list of phases.

The action clean deletes all intermediate files that MacPorts creates while building a port. A port clean is also often necessary to remove corrupted tarballs after a failed fetch phase.

%% sudo port clean --all vile

Note

You may also clean files selectively by using options --dist, --archive, or --work.

The uninstall action will remove an installed port.

%% sudo port uninstall vile

Note

To also recursively uninstall the ports that the given port depends on, use the ‑‑follow‑dependencies flag. This will not uninstall dependencies that are marked as requested or that have other dependents.

%% sudo port uninstall --follow-dependencies vile

To recursively uninstall all ports that depend on the given port before uninstalling the port itself, use the ‑‑follow‑dependents flag.

%% sudo port uninstall --follow-dependents ncurses

If a port is a dependency of another installed port, uninstall will not remove it unless you remove the dependent port(s) first. To override this behavior, use the -f (force) switch. This will obviously break the dependents. Don't force uninstall ports unless you know what you are doing.

%% sudo port -f uninstall ncurses

The contents action displays the files that have been installed by a given port. Uninstalled ports cannot have their contents listed.

%% port contents xorg-renderproto
Port xorg-renderproto contains:
  /opt/local/include/X11/extensions/render.h
  /opt/local/include/X11/extensions/renderproto.h
  /opt/local/lib/pkgconfig/renderproto.pc
  /opt/local/share/doc/renderproto/renderproto.txt

The installed action displays the installed versions, variants and activation status of the specified ports, or if no ports are specified, all installed ports. Use the -v option to also display the platform and CPU architecture(s) for which the ports were built, and any variants which were explicitly negated.

%% port installed
The following ports are currently installed:
  aalib @1.4rc5_2 (active)
  apr @1.2.8_0 (active)
  apr-util @1.2.8_2 (active)
  atk @1.18.0_0 (active)

[ ... trimmed ...]

  wxWidgets @2.8.4_2 (active)
  Xft2 @2.1.7_0 (active)
  xrender @0.9.0_0 (active)
  zlib @1.2.3_1 (active)
%% port -v installed atlas
The following ports are currently installed:
  atlas @3.8.3_4+gcc44-gcc43 (active) platform='darwin 10' archs='x86_64'

The outdated action checks your installed ports against the current ports tree to see if updated Portfiles have been released since your ports were installed. Note that you will not see new versions unless you have updated your ports tree using selfupdate or sync.

%% port outdated
apr                            1.2.8_0 < 1.2.9_0
autoconf                       2.61_0 < 2.61_1
gimp                           2.2.14_0 < 2.2.16_0
libtool                        1.5.22_0 < 1.5.24_0
pkgconfig                      0.21_0 < 0.22_0

The upgrade action upgrades installed ports and their dependencies when a Portfile in the repository has been updated after a port was installed.

%% sudo port upgrade gnome

If you wish not to upgrade a port's dependencies, use the -n switch. Note that this will often cause problems.

%% sudo port -n upgrade gnome

If you'd like to upgrade all outdated ports, use this command.

%% sudo port upgrade outdated

Note

The upgrade action by default does not uninstall an upgraded port —it deactivates it. See section Port Images, and also Destroot and Activate phases in Port Phases. If you wish to uninstall the old version, use the -u option.

%% sudo port -u upgrade vile

The dependents action reports what ports depend upon a given port, if any. MacPorts learns about dependents during port installation, so uninstalled ports will always report that there are no dependents.

%% port dependents openssl
neon depends on openssl
gnome-vfs depends on openssl
libdap depends on openssl

The livecheck action checks to see if the application corresponding to a given port has been updated at the developer's download site. It's especially useful for port maintainers, but others may also wish to see if a port has the latest available distribution source. See section Livecheck for more information.

%% port livecheck rrdtool
rrdtool seems to have been updated (port version: 1.2.23, new version: 1.3beta1)

Note

If livecheck finds no higher version at the port's download site, it prints nothing. The option -d (debug) may be used for detailed livecheck processing information.

The lint action checks if the Portfile conforms to the MacPorts standards specified in Portfile Development.

If a Portfile validates fine the following message is shown.

%% port lint chemtool
--->  Verifying Portfile for chemtool
--->  0 errors and 0 warnings found.

Otherwise the warnings and errors are listed.

%% port lint KeyArcher
--->  Verifying Portfile for KeyArcher
Warning: Line 2 should be a newline (after RCS tag)
Warning: Line 5 has trailing whitespace before newline
Error: Missing required variable: platforms
--->  1 errors and 2 warnings found.

Variants are a way for port authors to provide options for a port that may be chosen during the port install. To display the available variants, if any, use this command:

%% port variants fetchmail
fetchmail has the variants:
        universal
        ssl: Support secure connections using OpenSSL
        fetchmailconf: Install a graphical configurator
        ntlm: Enable NTLM authentication

Note

In some ports, you may find variants for which descriptions have not yet been written.

A variant can only be invoked when a port is installed. After you have determined what variants a given port has, if any, you may install a port using the variant as shown.

%% sudo port install fetchmail +ssl

Port variant execution may be verified using the port command with the verbose switch.

%% sudo port -v install fetchmail +ssl

When a port is installed using a valid variant and specified correctly, the verbose output will contain:

DEBUG: Executing variant ssl provides ssl

For an explanation of default variants see Port Variants. Default variants are optional, and not all ports using variants have them. For ports with default variants, you may install a port without them by negating default variants using - as shown.

%% sudo port install fetchmail -ssl

To verify that you have properly negated a default variant, you may want to use verbose mode. But negated variants are simply not reported in any way by the port command, as if they did not exist. You will know you have successfully negated the default variant in the example above if you do not see this line in the verbose output.

DEBUG: Executing variant ssl provides ssl

This section lists common operations you may want to perform when managing a MacPorts installation. Some commands are described in further details elsewhere in the guide.

Mind the 'sudo' for some of the subsequent examples, which is necessary if you have a root-MacPorts-installation.

is essential to stay up-to-date with MacPorts:

%% sudo port selfupdate
Password:
--->  Updating the ports tree
--->  Updating MacPorts base sources using rsync
MacPorts base version 1.9.1 installed,
MacPorts base version 1.9.1 downloaded.
--->  MacPorts base is already the latest version

The ports tree has been updated. To upgrade your installed ports, you should run
  port upgrade outdated

is often useful, in case you don't have time to wait for port upgrades (Every port needs to be downloaded, configured, built and installed, which can be - depending on your systems resources - a very time consuming procedure.):

%% port outdated
The following installed ports are outdated:
makedepend                     1.0.2_0 < 1.0.3_0         
Xft2                           2.1.14_0 < 2.2.0_0        
xorg-bigreqsproto              1.1.0_0 < 1.1.1_0         
xorg-compositeproto            0.4.1_0 < 0.4.2_0         
xorg-damageproto               1.2.0_0 < 1.2.1_0         
xorg-fixesproto                4.1.1_0 < 4.1.2_0         
xorg-libXdmcp                  1.0.3_0 < 1.1.0_0         
xorg-libXmu                    1.0.5_0 < 1.1.0_0         
xorg-libXScrnSaver             1.2.0_0 < 1.2.1_0         
xorg-randrproto                1.3.1_0 < 1.3.2_0         
xorg-scrnsaverproto            1.2.0_0 < 1.2.1_0         
xorg-xcmiscproto               1.2.0_0 < 1.2.1_0         
xpm                            3.5.8_0 < 3.5.9_0         
xorg-util-macros               1.10.1_0 < 1.11.0_0

is usually done with the following command:

%% sudo port upgrade outdated

In case you want to upgrade only a specific port (for whatever reason):

%% sudo port upgrade makedepend
Password:
--->  Computing dependencies for makedepend
--->  Fetching makedepend
--->  Attempting to fetch makedepend-1.0.3.tar.bz2 from http://lil.fr.distfiles.macports.org/makedepend
--->  Verifying checksum(s) for makedepend
--->  Extracting makedepend
--->  Configuring makedepend
--->  Building makedepend
--->  Staging makedepend into destroot
--->  Computing dependencies for makedepend
--->  Installing makedepend @1.0.3_0
--->  Deactivating makedepend @1.0.2_0
--->  Activating makedepend @1.0.3_0
--->  Cleaning makedepend

makes sense if you are sure that you won't change back to the older version(s) (which could be necessary in case of newly introduced bugs in the upgraded port version):

%% port installed inactive
The following ports are currently installed:
  makedepend @1.0.2_0
%% sudo port uninstall inactive
Password:
--->  Uninstalling makedepend @1.0.2_0

Of course one could also select only a specific inactive port, but that requires to specify the exact version:

%% sudo port uninstall makedepend @1.0.2_0
Password:
--->  Uninstalling makedepend @1.0.2_0

can sometimes be very helpful (example: find ports depending on 'xorg-util-macros'):

%% port echo depends:xorg-util-macros
mkfontscale
xorg-libAppleWM
xorg-libX11
xorg-libXaw
xorg-libXevie
xorg-libXp
xorg-libXt
xorg-server
xorg-server-devel
xscope
xtrap

can be sometimes worthwhile, since often additional ports get installed when a specific port is installed. One can imagine that if one keeps installing and uninstalling ports for some time the MacPorts tree can be swamped with ports actually not necessary anymore. Leaves can be found by issuing the command:

%% port echo leaves
aalib                          @1.4rc5_4 
autoconf                       @2.68_0 
autoconf263                    @2.63_0 
automake                       @1.11.1_0 
cmake                          @2.8.2_4 
coreutils                      @8.5_0

The following command delivers a similar result:

%% port installed leaves
  aalib @1.4rc5_4 (active)
  autoconf @2.68_0 (active)
  autoconf263 @2.63_0 (active)
  automake @1.11.1_0 (active)
  cmake @2.8.2_4 (active)
  coreutils @8.5_0 (active)

These leaves may be wanted, but could also be unwanted ports. (See the following entry!)

Well, before we come to the procedure of defining your requested ports, let's have a look at a typical scenario where you want to understand what is actually installed and what is on the other hand truly necessary for your system. Say checking leaves of your MacPorts installation gives this output:

%% port echo leaves
aalib                          @1.4rc5_4 
autoconf                       @2.68_0 
autoconf263                    @2.63_0 
automake                       @1.11.1_0 
cmake                          @2.8.2_4 
coreutils                      @8.5_0 
physfs                         @2.0.1_0

Now it is up to the user to decide what's needed and what is not. Let's say one certainly would want ports starting with autoconf up to coreutils, since they are often used in port installation. Set those as requested ports using:

%% sudo port setrequested autoconf autoconf263 automake cmake coreutils

Say port aalib is not needed anymore, while physfs seems odd and since you don't know what to make of it, you need to check out what it actually is and which ports needed its installation at some time in the past.

%% port info physfs
physfs @2.0.1 (devel)
Variants:             debug, universal

Description:          PhysicsFS is a library to provide abstract access to various
                      archives. It is intended for use in video games, and the design
                      was somewhat inspired by Quake 3's file subsystem.
Homepage:             http://icculus.org/physfs/

Build Dependencies:   cmake
Library Dependencies: zlib
Platforms:            darwin
License:              unknown
Maintainers:          nomaintainer@macports.org

Well, hmm, you certainly didn't want to install Quake 3 in the past. So, let's find out which ports actually depend on it, perhaps that might ring a bell:

%% port echo depends:physfs
fbg                             
libsdl_sound                    
lincity-ng                      
netpanzer

No, you didn't install netpanzer either, but - see there - fbg (The classic Falling Block Game!) was once on your agenda. But unfortunately that port was broken (see issue #24641) when you were trying to install it... Before you ran into the issue, of course, fbg's dependencies were resolved by MacPorts, which is why port physfs is still present on your system. Uff, great, confusion resolved. :-)

When you've step-by-step figured out which ports you want to keep on your system and have set them as requested, you'll have a list of unnecessary ports, which might be eventually as short as this:

%% port echo leaves
aalib                          @1.4rc5_4 
physfs                         @2.0.1_0 

Get rid of them by issuing the command:

%% sudo port uninstall leaves
--->  Deactivating physfs @2.0.1_0
--->  Cleaning physfs
--->  Uninstalling physfs @2.0.1_0
--->  Cleaning physfs
--->  Deactivating aalib @1.4rc5_4
--->  Uninstalling aalib @1.4rc5_4

Find all installed ports you previously set as requested using:

%% port installed requested

Checking the list of leaves from time to time will help to keep your system free of too much garbage. However, keep in mind that some ports may be dependencies only during the installation of a port (library dependencies, installation or configuration tools, etc.). So, be careful when removing seemingly unnecessary leaves, otherwise you'll see them being installed again and again.

MacPorts can pre-compile ports into binaries so applications need not be compiled when installing on a target system. MacPorts may create two types of binaries: archives and packages.

Binary archives can only be used on a target system running MacPorts. Binary archives allow MacPorts utilities to begin installation after the destroot phase and install and activate a port on the target system. Binary archives are created whenever a port is installed, and can also be downloaded from a server.

%% sudo port -d archive logrotate

Debug output is shown below.

--->  Creating logrotate-3.7_0.i386.tbz2

[ ... trimmed ... ]

DEBUG:
./
./+COMMENT
./+CONTENTS
./+DESC
./+PORTFILE
./+STATE
./opt/
./opt/local/
./opt/local/etc/
./opt/local/etc/logrotate.conf
./opt/local/man/
./opt/local/man/man8/
./opt/local/man/man8/logrotate.8
./opt/local/sbin/
./opt/local/sbin/logrotate
--->  Archive logrotate-3.7_0.i386.tbz2 packaged
DEBUG: Executing archive_finish
--->  Archive for logrotate 3.7_0 packaged

Binary archive files are placed in ${prefix}/var/macports/software/. The archive file type is set in the macports.conf file. The default format is .tbz2; other options are: tar, tbz, tbz2, tgz, tlz, txz, xar, zip, cpgz, cpio.

Binary packages are standalone binary installers that are precompiled; they do not require MacPorts on the target system. Binary files created with MacPorts may be either .pkg (Mac OS X Installer Packages), or .rpm (RPM Package Manager) format. MacPorts may also process a .pkg package into a Mac OS X .dmg disk image file. You may create binary packages with the port command as shown in these examples.

%% sudo port pkg pstree

You may create a Mac OS X .dmg disk image file as shown.

%% sudo port dmg pstree

You can also create a metapackage containing packages of a port and all its dependencies:

%% sudo port mpkg gimp2

Just as with a single package, a metapackage can also be wrapped in a .dmg.

%% sudo port mdmg gimp2

You may compile a port into an RPM file as shown, in order to install it onto a target that has RPM utilities or a full package management system that can install RPMs.

%% sudo port rpm pstree

All packages are placed in a port's work directory, except for rpms that are placed under the regular RPMS:

%% port work pstree
%% rpm --eval %{_rpmdir}

This chapter covers a brief introduction to Portfiles, how to create a local Portfile repository for development, and creating Portfiles.

A MacPorts Portfile is a TCL script that usually contains only the simple keyword/value combinations and Tcl extensions as described in the Portfile Reference chapter, though it may also contain arbitrary TCL code. Every port has a corresponding Portfile, but Portfiles do not completely define a port's installation behavior since MacPorts base has default port installation characteristics coded within it. Therefore Portfiles need only specify required options, though some ports may require non-default options.

A common way for Portfiles to augment or override MacPorts base default installation phase characteristics is by using Portfile phase declaration(s). If you use Portfile phase declaration(s), you should know how to identify the global section of a Portfile. Any statements not contained within a phase declaration, no matter where they are located in a Portfile, are said to be in the global section of the Portfile; therefore the global section need not be contiguous. Likewise, to remove statements from the global section they must be placed within a phase declaration.

The main phases you need to be aware of when making a Portfile are these:

  • Fetch

  • Extract

  • Patch

  • Configure

  • Build

  • Destroot

The default installation phase behavior performed by the MacPorts base works fine for applications that use the standard configure, make, and make install steps, which conform to phases configure, build, and destroot respectively. For applications that do not conform to this standard behavior, any installation phase may be augmented using pre- and/or post- phases, or even overridden or eliminated. See Example Portfiles below.

Note

For a detailed description of all port phases, see the Portfile Reference chapter.

Here we list the individual Portfile components for an application that conforms to the standard configure, make, and make install steps of most open source application installs.

  1. Modeline

    This should be the first line of a Portfile. It sets the correct editing options for vim and emacs. See Port Style for more information. Its use is optional and up to the port maintainer.

    # -*- coding: utf-8; mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4 -*- vim:fenc=utf-8:ft=tcl:et:sw=4:ts=4:sts=4
  2. Subversion ID tag line

    This must be a Portfile's second line (or the first, if a modeline is not used). When a port is committed to the repository, ID tags are expanded to include the filename and the revision number, date and time, and author of the last commit.

    # $Id$
  3. PortSystem line

    This statement is required for all ports.

    PortSystem          1.0
  4. Port name

    name                rrdtool
  5. Port version

    version             1.2.23
  6. Port categories

    A port may belong to more than one category, but the first (primary) category should match the directory name in the ports tree where the Portfile is to reside.

    categories          net
  7. Platform statement

    platforms           darwin
  8. Port maintainers

    A port's maintainers are the people who have agreed to take responsibility for keeping the port up-to-date. The maintainers keyword lists the maintainers' email addresses, preferrably in the obfuscated form which hides them from spambots. For more, see the full explanation of the maintainers keyword in the Global Keywords section of the Portfile Reference chapter.

    maintainers         jdoe \
                        example.org:julesverne
  9. Port description

    description         Round Robin Database
  10. Port long_description

    long_description    RRDtool is a system to store and display time-series \
                        data
  11. A port's application homepage

    homepage            http://people.ee.ethz.ch/~oetiker/webtools/rrdtool/
  12. A port's download URLs

    master_sites        http://oss.oetiker.ch/rrdtool/pub/ \
                        ftp://ftp.pucpr.br/rrdtool/
  13. Port checksums

    The checksums specified in a Portfile are checked with the fetched tarball for security. For the best security, use rmd160 and sha256 checksum types.

    checksums               rmd160  7bbfce4fecc2a8e1ca081169e70c1a298ab1b75a \
                            sha256  2829fcb7393bac85925090b286b1f9c3cd3fbbf8e7f35796ef4131322509aa53

    To find the correct checksums for a port's distribution file, follow this example:

    %% openssl rmd160 rrdtool-1.2.23.tar.gz
    %% openssl sha256 rrdtool-1.2.23.tar.gz
    RIPEMD160( ... rrdtool-1.2.23.tar.gz)= 7bbfce4fecc2a8e1ca081169e70c1a298ab1b75a
    
    SHA256( ... rrdtool-1.2.23.tar.gz)= 2829fcb7393bac85925090b286b1f9c3cd3fbbf8e7f35796ef4131322509aa53
  14. Port dependencies

    A port's dependencies are ports that must be installed before another port is installed.

    depends_lib         port:perl5.8 \
                        port:tcl \
                        port:zlib
  15. Port configure arguments (optional)

    configure.args      --enable-perl-site-install \
                        --mandir=${prefix}/share/man

In this section we begin by taking a look at a complete simple Portfile; then we see how to augment default phases by defining pre- and post- phases, how to override default phases, and finally how to eliminate port phases.

# $Id$

PortSystem          1.0

name                rrdtool
version             1.2.23
categories          net
platforms           darwin
license             GPL
maintainers         julesverne
description         Round Robin Database
long_description    RRDtool is a system to store and display time-series data
homepage            http://people.ee.ethz.ch/~oetiker/webtools/rrdtool/
master_sites        http://oss.oetiker.ch/rrdtool/pub/ \
                    ftp://ftp.pucpr.br/rrdtool/

checksums           rmd160  7bbfce4fecc2a8e1ca081169e70c1a298ab1b75a \
                    sha256  2829fcb7393bac85925090b286b1f9c3cd3fbbf8e7f35796ef4131322509aa53

depends_lib         path:bin/perl:perl5 \
                    port:tcl \
                    port:zlib

configure.args      --enable-perl-site-install \
                    --mandir=${prefix}/share/man

To augment a port's installation phase, and not override it, you may use pre- and post- installation phases as shown in this example.

post-destroot {
    # Install example files not installed by the Makefile
    file mkdir ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}/examples
    file copy ${worksrcpath}/examples/ \
        ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}/examples
}

To override the automatic MacPorts installation phase processing, define your own installation phases as shown in this example.

destroot {
    xinstall -m 755 -d ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
    xinstall -m 755 ${worksrcpath}/README ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
}

To eliminate a default phase, simply define a phase with no contents as shown.

build {}

Note

Because many software packages do not use configure, a keyword is provided to eliminate the configure phase. Another exception is the destroot phase may not be eliminated. See the chapter Portfile Reference for full information.

Startupitems may be placed in the global section of a Portfile.

startupitem.create      yes
startupitem.name        nmicmpd
startupitem.executable  "${prefix}/bin/nmicmpd"

Variants are a way for port authors to provide options that may be invoked at install time. They are declared in the global section of a Portfile using the variant keyword, and should include carefully chosen variant descriptions.

The most common actions for user-selected variants is to add or remove dependencies, configure arguments, and build arguments according to various options a port author wishes to provide. Here is an example of several variants that modify depends_lib and configure arguments for a port.

variant fastcgi description {Add fastcgi binary} {
    configure.args-append \
            --enable-fastcgi \
            --enable-force-cgi-redirect \
            --enable-memory-limit
}

variant gmp description {Add GNU MP functions} {
    depends_lib-append port:gmp
    configure.args-append --with-gmp=${prefix}

}

variant sqlite description {Build sqlite support} {
    depends_lib-append \
        port:sqlite3
    configure.args-delete \
        --without-sqlite \
        --without-pdo-sqlite
    configure.args-append \
        --with-sqlite \
        --with-pdo-sqlite=${prefix} \
        --enable-sqlite-utf8
}

Note

Variant names may contain only the characters A-Z, a-z, and the underscore character _. Therefore, take care to never use hyphens in variant names.

In the example variant declaration below, the configure argument --without-x is removed and a number of others are appended.

variant x11 description {Builds port as an X11 program with Lucid widgets} {
    configure.args-delete   --without-x
    configure.args-append   --with-x-toolkit=lucid \
                            --without-carbon \
                            --with-xpm \
                            --with-jpeg \
                            --with-tiff \
                            --with-gif \
                            --with-png
    depends_lib-append      lib:libX11:XFree86 \
                            lib:libXpm:XFree86 \
                            port:jpeg \
                            port:tiff \
                            port:libungif \
                            port:libpng
}

If a variant requires options in addition to those provided by keywords using -append and/or -delete, in other words, any actions that would normally take place within a port installation phase, do not try to do this within the variant declaration. Rather, modify the behavior of any affected phases when the variant is invoked using the variant_isset keyword.

post-destroot {
    xinstall -m 755 -d ${destroot}${prefix}/etc/
    xinstall ${worksrcpath}/examples/foo.conf \
        ${destroot}${prefix}/etc/

    if {[variant_isset carbon]} {
        delete ${destroot}${prefix}/bin/emacs
        delete ${destroot}${prefix}/bin/emacs-${version}
    }
}

Variants are used to specify actions that lie outside the core functions of an application or port, but there may be some cases where you wish to specify these non-core functions by default. For this purpose you may use the keyword default_variants.

default_variants    +foo +bar

Note

The default_variant keyword may only be used in the global Portfile section.

Patch files are files created with the Unix command diff that are applied using the command patch to modify text files to fix bugs or extend functionality.

If you wish to contribute modifications or fixes to a Portfile, you should do so in the form of a patch. Follow the steps below to create Portfile patch files

  1. Make a copy of the Portfile you wish to modify; both files must be in the same directory, though it may be any directory.

    %% cp -p Portfile Portfile.orig
  2. Edit the file to make it as you want it to be after it is fetched.

  3. Now use the Unix command diff -u to create a unified diff patch file. Put the name of the port in the patchfile, for example, Portfile-rrdtool.diff.

    %% diff -u Portfile.orig Portfile > Portfile-rrdtool.diff
  4. A patch file that is a unified diff file is the easiest to interpret by humans and this type should always be used for ports. The Portfile patch below will change the version and checksums when applied.

    --- Portfile.orig        2011-07-25 18:52:12.000000000 -0700
    +++ Portfile    2011-07-25 18:53:35.000000000 -0700
    @@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
     PortSystem          1.0
     name                foo
     
    -version             1.3.0
    +version             1.4.0
     categories          net
     maintainers         nomaintainer
     description         A network monitoring daemon.
    @@ -13,9 +13,9 @@
     
     homepage            http://rsug.itd.umich.edu/software/${name}
     
     master_sites        ${homepage}/files/
    -checksums           rmd160 f0953b21cdb5eb327e40d4b215110b71
    +checksums           rmd160 01532e67a596bfff6a54aa36face26ae
     extract.suffix      .tgz
     platforms           darwin
    

Now you may attach the patch file to a MacPorts Trac ticket for the port author to evaluate.

Necessary or useful patches to application source code should generally be sent to the application developer rather than the port author so the modifications may be included in the next version of the application.

Generally speaking, you should create one patch file for each file to be patched. Patchfile filenames should uniquely distinguish the file and generally be of the form patch-<directory>-<filename>.diff, as shown in this example: patch-src-Makefile.in.diff.

You may use patch files that patch multiple files under these conditions:

  • You find existing patch files that do so.

  • If fixing a particular problem or bug requires changes in multiple files -in those cases the patch filename should reference the problem or bug, for example: patch-<destroot_variable_fix>.diff

To create a patch to modify a single file, follow the steps below.

  1. Locate the file you wish to patch in its original location within the unpacked source directory and make a duplicate of it.

    %% cd ~/Downloads/foo-1.34/src
    %% cp -p Makefile.in Makefile.in.orig
  2. Edit the file and modify the text to reflect your corrections.

  3. Now cd to the top-level directory of the unpacked source, and use the Unix command diff -u to create a unified diff patch file.

    %% cd ~/Downloads/foo-1.34
    %% diff -u src/Makefile.in.orig src/Makefile.in > patch-src-Makefile.in.diff

    You should execute the diff command from the top-level directory of the unpacked source code, because during the patch phase MacPorts by default uses the patch argument -p0, which does not strip prefixes with any leading slashes from file names found in the patch file (as opposed to -p1 that strips one, etc), and any path not relative to the top-level directory of the unpacked source will fail during the patch phase.

    Note

    If you find an existing source file patch you wish to use that contains leading path information (diff was executed from a directory higher than the top-level source directory), you will need to use the patch phase keyword patch.pre_args to specify a -px value for how many prefixes with leading slashes are to be stripped off.

  4. A patch file that is a unified diff file is the easiest to interpret by humans and this type should always be used for ports. See the example below where a patch adds DESTDIR support to a Makefile.in file.

    --- src/Makefile.in.orig   2007-06-01 16:30:47.000000000 -0700
    +++ src/Makefile.in       2007-06-20 10:10:59.000000000 -0700
    @@ -131,23 +131,23 @@
            $(INSTALL_DATA)/gdata $(INSTALL_DATA)/perl
    
     install-lib:
    -       -mkdir -p $(INSTALL_LIB)
    +       -mkdir -p $(DESTDIR)$(INSTALL_LIB)
            $(PERL) tools/install_lib -s src -l $(INSTALL_LIB) $(LIBS)
    -       cp $(TEXT) $(INSTALL_LIB)/
    +       cp $(TEXT) $(DESTDIR)$(INSTALL_LIB)/
  5. Place the patch patch-src-Makefile.in.diff in the directory ${portpath}/files and use it in a port using the patchfiles keyword. ${portpath} may be in a local Portfile repository during development, or files/ may be in a port's ${portpath} in the global MacPorts repository.

    patchfiles          patch-src-Makefile.in.diff

MacPorts applies patch files automatically, but you may want to know how to apply patch files manually if you want to test patch files you have created or you wish to apply uncommitted Portfile patches.

  1. Change to the directory containing the file to be patched. In this example, we'll apply a Portfile patch to the postfix port.

    %% cd $(port dir postfix)
  2. Now apply the patch from your Downloads folder, or wherever you put it. The patchfile knows the name of the file to be patched.

    %% patch -p0 < ~/Downloads/Portfile-postfix.diff
    patching file Portfile

To create and test Portfiles that are not yet committed to Subversion, you may create a local Portfile repository as shown. Replace the hypothetical user julesverne with your username in the example below.

  1. Open the sources.conf file in a text editor. For example, to open it into TextEdit:

    %% open -e ${prefix}/etc/macports/sources.conf
  2. Insert a URL pointing to your local repository location before the rsync URL as shown.

    file:///Users/julesverne/ports
    rsync://rsync.macports.org/release/ports [default]
    

    Note

    The file URL should always appear before the rsync URL so that local Portfiles can be tested that are duplicated in the MacPorts tree, because the port command will always operate on the first Portfile it encounters.

  3. Place the Portfiles you create inside a directory whose name matches the port, which should in turn be placed inside a directory that reflects the port's primary category (the first category entry in the Portfile). For example, to create the directory for a hypothetical port bestevergame and to begin editing its Portfile in TextEdit, you can use these commands:

    %% mkdir -p ~/ports/games/bestevergame
    %% cd ~/ports/games/bestevergame
    %% touch Portfile
    %% open -e Portfile

    See other sections in the Guide for help writing Portfiles. If you've already written the Portfile elsewhere, you can instead copy the Portfile into this directory.

  4. If your Portfile needs to apply any patches to the port's source files, create a files directory and place the patchfiles in it, and reference the patchfiles in your Portfile, as explained in Creating Source Code Patches.

  5. After you create or update your Portfile, use the MacPorts portindex command in the local repository's directory to create or update the index of the ports in your local repository.

    %% cd ~/ports
    %% portindex
    Creating software index in /Users/julesverne/ports
    Adding port games/bestevergame
    
    Total number of ports parsed:   1
    Ports successfully parsed:      1
    Ports failed:                   0

Once the local port is added to the PortIndex, it becomes available for searching or installation as with any other Portfile in the MacPorts tree:

%% port search bestever
bestevergame @1.1 (games)
    The Best Ever Game

This section contains practical guidelines for creating Portfiles that install smoothly and provide consistency between ports. The following sections are on the TODO list.

Portfiles may be thought of as a table of keys and values in two columns separated by spaces (not tabs), so you should set your editor to use soft tabs, which are tabs emulated by spaces. By default, the top line of all Portfiles should use a modeline that defines soft tabs for the vim and emacs editors as shown.

# -*- coding: utf-8; mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4 -*- vim:fenc=utf-8:ft=tcl:et:sw=4:ts=4:sts=4

The left column should consist of single words, and will be separated from the more complex right side by spaces in multiples of four. Variable assignments and variant declarations are exceptions, and may be considered a single word on the left side, with a single space between words.

set libver "8.5"


variant mysql5 { ... }

Frequently multiple items are necessary in the second column. For example, to set multiple source download locations, multiple master_sites must be defined. Unless the second column items are few and short you should place each additional item on a new line and separate lines with a backslash. Indent the lines after the first line to make it clear the items are second column values and also to emphasize the unity of the block.

destroot.keepdirs    ${destroot}${prefix}/var/run \
                     ${destroot}${prefix}/var/log \
                     ${destroot}${prefix}/var/cache/mrtg

TODO: Set variables so changing paths may be done in one place; use them anytime it makes updates simpler: distname ${name}-src-${version}

If there is the need to replace a port with another port or a renaming is necessary for some reason, the port should be marked as replaced_by.

As an illustration of a typical workflow the port skrooge-devel shall be taken. This port had been used for testing new versions of skrooge, but it turned out to have become unnecessary due to the fact that skrooge's developers currently prefer a distribution via port skrooge instead.

At the end of this section the use of the obsolete PortGroup is suggested as an even shorter approach to the below described workflow.

Skrooge's original devel port file looked like this:

# -*- coding: utf-8; mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4; truncate-lines: t -*- vim:fenc=utf-8:et:sw=4:ts=4:sts=4
# $Id$

PortSystem          1.0
PortGroup           kde4    1.1

fetch.type          svn
svn.url             svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/extragear/office/skrooge
svn.revision        1215845

name                skrooge-devel
version             0.8.0-${svn.revision}

categories          kde finance
maintainers         mk pixilla openmaintainer
description         Skrooge
long_description    Personal finance management tool for KDE4, with the aim of being highly intuitive, while \
                    providing powerful functions such as reporting (including graphics), persistent \
                    Undo/Redo, encryption, and much more...

conflicts           skrooge

platforms           darwin
license             GPL-3

homepage            http://skrooge.org
master_sites        http://skrooge.org/files/

livecheck.type      none

distname            skrooge

depends_lib-append  port:kdelibs4 \
                    port:libofx \
                    port:qca-ossl \
                    port:kdebase4-runtime \
                    port:oxygen-icons

The following steps have to be taken to ensure a smooth transition for a MacPorts user updating his local installation using sudo port upgrade:

  1. add the line replaced_by foo where foo is the port this one is replaced by; when a user upgrades this port, MacPorts will instead install the replacement port

    replaced_by         skrooge
  2. increase the version, revision, or epoch, so that users who have this port installed will get notice in port outdated that they should upgrade it and trigger the above process

    revision            1
  3. clear distfiles (have a line reading only distfiles) so that no distfile is downloaded for this stub port

    distfiles
  4. delete master_sites since there aren't any distfiles to download

  5. disable livecheck

    livecheck.type      none
  6. add a pre-configure block with a ui_error and return -code error explaining to users who try to install this port that the port has been replaced

    pre-configure {
        ui_error "Please do not install this port since it has been replaced by 'skrooge'."
        return -code error
    }

With above modifications the port file eventually looks like this:

# -*- coding: utf-8; mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4; truncate-lines: t -*- vim:fenc=utf-8:et:sw=4:ts=4:sts=4
# $Id$

PortSystem          1.0

name                skrooge-devel
svn.revision        1215845
version             0.8.0-${svn.revision}
revision            1

replaced_by         skrooge

categories          kde finance
maintainers         mk pixilla openmaintainer
description         Skrooge
long_description    Personal finance management tool for KDE4, with the aim of being highly intuitive, while \
                    providing powerful functions such as reporting (including graphics), persistent \
                    Undo/Redo, encryption, and much more...

platforms           darwin
license             GPL-3

homepage            http://skrooge.org

livecheck.type      none

pre-configure {
    ui_error "Please do not install this port since it has been replaced by 'skrooge'."
    return -code error
}

distfiles

A user upgrading ports will experience the following for port skrooge-devel:

%% sudo port upgrade skrooge-devel
--->  skrooge-devel is replaced by skrooge
--->  Computing dependencies for skrooge
--->  Fetching skrooge
--->  Verifying checksum(s) for skrooge
--->  Extracting skrooge
--->  Configuring skrooge
--->  Building skrooge
--->  Staging skrooge into destroot
--->  Deactivating skrooge-devel @0.8.0-1215845_0
--->  Cleaning skrooge-devel
--->  Computing dependencies for skrooge
--->  Installing skrooge @0.8.0.6_0
--->  Activating skrooge @0.8.0.6_0
##########################################################
# Don't forget that dbus needs to be started as the local 
# user (not with sudo) before any KDE programs will launch
# To start it run the following command:                  
# launchctl load /Library/LaunchAgents/org.freedesktop.dbus-session.plist
##########################################################
 
######################################################
#  Programs will not start until you run the command 
#  'sudo chown -R $USER ~/Library/Preferences/KDE'  
#  replacing $USER with your username.              
######################################################
--->  Cleaning skrooge

In case a user actually tries to install the obsolete port skrooge-devel it would be pointed out by an error message that this is impossible now:

%% sudo port install skrooge-devel
--->  Fetching skrooge-devel
--->  Verifying checksum(s) for skrooge-devel
--->  Extracting skrooge-devel
--->  Configuring skrooge-devel
Error: Please do not install this port since it has been replaced by 'skrooge'.
Error: Target org.macports.configure returned: 
Log for skrooge-devel is at: /opt/local/var/macports/logs/_opt_local_var_macports_sources_rsync.macports.org_release_ports_kde_skrooge-devel/main.log
Error: Status 1 encountered during processing.
To report a bug, see <http://guide.macports.org/#project.tickets>

Using the PortGroup obsolete makes the task described in the previous subsection much easier:

# -*- coding: utf-8; mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4; truncate-lines: t -*- vim:fenc=utf-8:et:sw=4:ts=4:sts=4
# $Id$
PortSystem          1.0
replaced_by         skrooge
PortGroup           obsolete 1.0
name                skrooge-devel
svn.revision        1215845
version             0.8.0-${svn.revision}
revision            2

The PortGroup defines a number of reasonable defaults for a port that is only there to inform users that they should uninstall it and install something else instead. You might want to override some of the defaults though. For details have a look at the PortGroup's source code in ${prefix}/var/macports/sources/rsync.macports.org/release/ports/_resources/port1.0/group/obsolete-1.0.tcl.

Note

It is important to specify replaced_by BEFORE the PortGroup line!

If a port has to be removed from MacPorts one should consider the hints concerning replacing it by some alternative port given above. If there is no replacement for it, insert a pre-configure block as described there to alert the user about why the port is not allowed for installation anymore.

It is recommended to wait about a year before the port directory is actually being removed from MacPorts' Subversion repository.

The buildbot is a port build-service currently supporting building of all committed ports for Snow Leopard, Lion, and Mountain Lion using the MacPorts AutoBuild (MPAB) scripts.

Every time a maintainer commits changes to MacPorts' central SVN repository the buildbot will check whether a rebuild of the corresponding port(s) would be necessary. If the port(s) in question are distributable their binary archives will be kept for subsequent distribution for the three most current versions of the Mac OS X operating system.

If a build error occurred for a port its maintainer will be informed via an email so that problems which did not surface on the maintainer's machine will not go unnoticed. Port maintainers will find the waterfall and the builders views most useful since they give information about the build status and offer the possibility to build ones port(s) on specific builders.

Thus the buildbot helps to keep MacPorts consistent on various OSX versions, i.e. a maintainer does not need access to these versions anymore in order to assure that the port(s) maintained build without problems. Currently only the default port variants will be build and kept.

This chapter serves as a reference for the major elements of a Portfile: port phases, dependencies, StartupItems, variables, keywords, and Tcl extensions.

MacPorts keywords are used to specify required or optional items within a Portfile, or to override default options used by MacPorts base for individual ports. Keywords are to be used within the global and variant sections of Portfiles, and not within optional port phase declarations.

The global keywords listed below specify information for ports as a whole, whereas the keywords listed under a port phase specify information to be used during a particular installation phase.

PortSystem

The first non-comment line of every Portfile; it should be followed by PortGroup inclusions (if any) and then a blank line. It defines which version of the Portfile interpreter will be used. (There is currently only one version.)

PortSystem          1.0

name

The name of the port. To avoid special interpretation by shells and the like, names should contain only alphanumeric characters, underscores, dashes or dots. For projects whose proper names contain + characters, change these to x (i.e. libstdc++ becomes libstdcxx).

name                foo
version

The version of the ported software.

version             1.23.45
revision

Optional keyword (default is 0) that is used to track port revisions. It should not be incremented for port revisions unless it would benefit users to upgrade an installed port, and cleared when the port is updated to a newer version.

It should be used if a bug in the Portfile was found and all installations of this port have to be updated. If the change only affects new installations, there is no need to increase it.

revision            1
epoch

An optional keyword (default value is 0) that must be used when a port is updated to a version that is numerically less than the previous version, for example 1.10 -> 1.2 or 20070928 -> 1.0. Some Portfile authors have used large epoch values that look like a date, but there is no reason to do so. The epoch is simply an unsigned integer, and the only requirement is that it never be decreased.

epoch               1

Note

An epoch is not needed for most ports. If a port's version numbers advance in normal dotted-decimal sequence, there is no reason to add an epoch.

categories

The category under which the ported software falls. The first category should be the same as the directory within which the Portfile is stored; secondary and tertiary categories may be selected.

categories          net security
maintainers

A port's maintainers are the people who have agreed to take responsibility for keeping the port up-to-date. Most ports have only a single maintainer, but some ports have two or more comaintainers. The maintainers keyword lists the maintainers' email addresses, preferrably in the obfuscated form which hides them from spambots:

  • For addresses in domain @macports.org, simply omit the domain name.

  • For addresses in other domains, e.g. , use the convention example.org:account to specify the address.

In the example below, the maintainer email addresses and are hidden using these conventions.

maintainers         jdoe \
                    example.org:julesverne

Note

The address designates a port that is not maintained by anybody and may be modified by any committer. Feel free to claim maintainership of a nomaintainer port if desired. The address designates a port that has a maintainer who allows minor changes to be committed without his or her prior approval. Port maintainers who are not committers are encouraged to add to their ports.

description

A one-sentence description of the ported software.

description         A classic shooter arcade game.
long_description

A long description of the ported software. Break long lines with escaped newlines.

long_description    A classic shooter arcade game derived from \
                    the game alien-munchers.  Not suitable for \
                    children under two years old.
homepage

Port application's homepage.

homepage            http://www.example.org/apps
platforms

The platforms on which the port has been tested.

platforms           darwin freebsd
supported_archs

The CPU architectures for which this port can be built. Archs currently supported by Mac OS X are: i386, ppc, ppc64, x86_64. If this option is not set, it is assumed that the port can build for all archs. If a port does not install any architecture-specific files, use the special value noarch.

If the building architecture isn't among supported_archs, port fails with an error message, except when building on x86_64 and supported_archs contains i386 or when building on ppc64 and supported_archs contains ppc, in which case the port will be built in 32-bit mode.

supported_archs           i386 ppc
supported_archs           noarch
license

The proper format for license consists of the license name, followed by a hyphen and number if indicating a specific version. A space should be placed between licenses if there is more than one that applies. If an element in the license list is itself a list, it is interpreted as offering a choice of any one of the licenses in the sub-list.

If the version number is a .0 version, the .0 should be omitted to make the version an integer. If the author gives the choice of using a given license or any later version of it, append a plus sign (+) to the version number. If the version specified in this case is also the earliest version, just leave out the version number entirely since it implies all versions.

license           GPL-3
license           {freetype GPL}

Global variables are variables available to any Portfile. For a list of additional variables available to ports that are assigned to a MacPorts Portgroup, see portgroup(7).

All of these variables except prefix are read-only!

prefix

Installation prefix, set at compile time and displayed in ${prefix}/etc/macports/macports.conf —- may be overridden on a per-port basis, for example to install into a wholly-contained subdirectory of ${prefix}, but most ports should have no reason to do so.

Default: /opt/local

libpath

Path to the MacPorts TCL libraries.

portpath

Full path to the Portfile of the port being executed. Portfile repositories are defined in the file sources.conf.

Default: ${prefix}/var/macports/sources/rsync.macports.org/release/ports/<category>/<portname>/

filesdir

Path to files directory relative to ${portpath}.

Value: files

filespath

Full path to files directory.

Value: ${portpath}/${filesdir}

workpath

Full path to work directory.

Value: ${portbuildpath}/work

worksrcpath

Full path to extracted source code.

Value: ${workpath}/${worksrcdir}

destroot

Full path into which software will be destrooted.

Value: ${workpath}/destroot

distpath

Location to store downloaded distfiles.

Value: ${sysportpath}/distfiles/${dist_subdir}/

install.user

The Unix user at the time of port installation.

install.group

The Unix group at the time of port installation.

os.platform

The underlying operating system platform (i.e. darwin on OS X, freebsd, etc.).

os.arch

The hardware architecture -- either powerpc or i386.

os.version

The version number of the host operating system (i.e. 12.3.0 for Darwin 12.3.0 a.k.a. OS X 10.8.3).

os.endian

Endianness of the processor -- either big (on PowerPC systems) or little (on Intel systems).

os.major

The major version number of the host operating system (i.e. 12 for Darwin 12.x).

The MacPorts port installation process has a number of distinct phases that are described in detail in this section. The default scripts coded into MacPorts base performs the standard configure, make, and make install steps. For applications that do not conform to this standard, installation phases may be declared in a Portfile to augment or override the default behavior as described in the Portfile Development chapter.

fetch

Fetch the ${distfiles} from ${master_sites} and place it in ${prefix}/var/macports/distfiles/${name}.

checksum

Compare ${checksums} specified in a Portfile to the checksums of the fetched ${distfiles}.

extract

Unzip and untar the ${distfiles} into the path ${prefix}/var/macports/build/..../work

patch

Apply optional patch files specified in ${patchfiles} to modify a port's source code file(s).

configure

Execute ${configure.cmd} in ${worksrcpath}.

build

Execute ${build.cmd} in ${worksrcpath}.

test

Execute commands to run test suites bundled with a port.

destroot

Execute the command make install DESTDIR=${destroot}in ${worksrcpath}.

Note

Using a DESTDIR variable is a part of standard GNU coding practices, and this variable must be supported in an application's install routines for MacPorts' destroot phase to work without manual Portfile scripting or source patching. Urge developers to fully support DESTDIR in their applications.

Understanding the destroot phase is critical to understanding MacPorts, because, unlike some package management systems, MacPorts stages an installation into an intermediate location, not the final file destination. MacPorts uses the destroot phase to provide:

  • Port uninstalls - a port's files may be cleanly uninstalled because all files and directories are recorded during install.

  • Multiple port versions may be installed on the same host, since a port's files are not directly inserted into ${prefix} but rather hard-linked into ${prefix} from an intermediate location during a later activation phase.

Any empty directories in ${destroot} upon completion of the destroot phase are removed unless a directory name is placed in the value field of the optional destroot.keepdirs keyword.

install

Archive a port's destrooted files into ${prefix}/var/macports/software. See Port Images in the MacPorts Internals chapter for details.

activate

Extract the port's files from the archive in ${prefix}/var/macports/software to their final installed locations, usually inside ${prefix}.

MacPorts keywords are used to specify required or optional items within a Portfile, or to override default options used by MacPorts base for individual ports. Keywords are to be used within the global and variant sections of Portfiles, and not within optional port phase declarations.

In other words, port phase keywords are not located within port phase declarations, but rather they refer to port phases and set options for those phases, and they take effect whether or not phase declarations have been explicitly defined in a Portfile.

Keyword list modifiers are keywords that end in -append, -delete or -replace. Keywords that support list modifiers are identified under appropriate reference sections below.

-append adds a value to the keyword, -delete removes a previously added item. -replace takes two arguments and replaces the first value from the keyword with the second value. -strsed treats the keyword value as a string and filters it through strsed using the given pattern. There is also a deprecated syntax for -replace which takes only one argument and behaves the same as -strsed.

Keyword list modifiers are most frequently used for these three purposes:

  1. Preserve configure defaults set by a previously executed Portfile keyword or by MacPorts base

    MacPorts base sets the gcc compiler flags CFLAGS and LDFLAGS for all ports using configure.cflags and configure.ldflags, therefore to keep from overwriting the default compiler flags use configure.cflags-append and configure.ldflags-append.

    • configure.cflags-append

    • configure.ldflags-append

  2. Preserve PortGroup Dependencies

    Ports in a PortGroup have default library dependencies set by MacPorts base. Therefore, never use depends_lib in ports belonging to a PortGroup or it will overwrite the default library dependencies. Instead, use depends_lib-append.

  3. Add or Delete Items for Variants

    When a variant requires more or fewer dependencies, distfiles, or patchfiles, when the variant is invoked you want to add or remove items to the appropriate keyword values list set in the global section of the Portfile. Use the appropriate keywords, for example:

    • depends_lib-append or depends_lib-delete depends_lib-replace

    • distfiles-append or distfiles-delete distfiles-replace

    • patchfiles-append or patchfiles-delete patchfiles-replace

Keywords that support pre_args and post_args are used to assemble command strings together in a row, as described in the reference sections below. But it should be noted that all keyword argument modifiers implicitly support keyword list modifiers. For example, the keyword configure.pre_args also supports configure.pre_args-append and configure.pre_args-delete.

The list of keywords related to the fetch phase.

master_sites

A list of URLs from which a port's ${distfiles} may be retrieved.

Keyword values for master_sites may include predefined site lists known as mirrors, such as sourceforge, gnu, etc. If the file(s) declared in ${distfiles} are not successfully fetched after trying the master_sites values, the MacPorts Project svn server is always tried last before giving up.

For a complete list of mirrors and their list of sites, see the file mirror_sites.tcl located in _resources/port1.0/fetch/ in the ports tree.

Note

If a master_sites keyword has multiple values, after any mirrors are expanded the list of sites is sorted by ping response times. The sites are then tried in sorted order until matching ${distfiles} are found.

  • Default: none (but the macports_distfiles mirror is always implicitly appended)

  • Examples:

    master_sites        http://www.example.org/files/ \
                        http://www.examplemirror.org/example_org/files/
    
    

    You may also use mirror site lists predefined by MacPorts. Here the sourceforge, gnu, and freebsd mirrors are used.

    master_sites        sourceforge gnu freebsd
    
    

    When using mirror master_sites, the subdirectory ${name} is checked on every mirror. If the mirror subdirectory does not match ${name}, then you may specify it using after the mirror separated by a colon.

    master_sites        sourceforge:widget \
                        gnu:widget
    
    

    For ports that must fetch multiple download files from different locations, you must label the files with tags and match the tags to a distfiles keyword. The format is mirror:subdirectory:tag.

    In the example below, file_one.tar.gz is fetched from sourceforge mirrors in subdirectory ${name}; file tagtwo.tar.gz is fetched from the gnu mirrors in subdirectory sources.

    master_sites        sourceforge::tagone \
                        gnu:sources:tagtwo
    
    distfiles           file_one.tar.gz:tagone \
                        file_two.tar.gz:tagtwo
master_sites.mirror_subdir

Subdirectory to append to all mirror sites for any list specified in ${master_sites}.

  • Default: ${name}

  • Example:

    master_sites.mirror_subdir  magic
patch_sites

A list of sites from which a port's patchfiles may be downloaded, where applicable.

  • Default: ${master_sites}

  • Example:

    patch_sites         ftp://ftp.patchcityrepo.com/pub/magic/patches
patch_sites.mirror_subdir

Subdirectory to append to all mirror sites for any list specified in ${patch_sites}.

  • Default: ${name}

  • Example:

    patch_sites.mirror_subdir   magic
distname

The name of the distribution filename, not including the extract suffix (see below).

  • Default: ${name}-${version}

  • Example:

    distname            ${name}
distfiles

The full distribution filename, including the extract suffix. Used to specify non-default distribution filenames; this keyword must be specified (and tags used) when a port has multiple download files (see master_sites).

  • Default: ${distname}${extract.suffix}

  • Examples:

    distfiles           ${name}-dev_src.tgz
    distfiles           file_one.tar.gz:tagone \
                        file_two.tar.gz:tagtwo
dist_subdir

Create a sub-directory in distpath to store all fetched files.

  • Default: ${name}

  • Example:

    dist_subdir         vim${version}
worksrcdir

Sets the path to source directory relative to workpath. It can be used if the extracted source directory has a different name then the distfile. Also used if the source to be built is in a subdirectory.

  • Default: ${distname}

  • Examples:

    worksrcdir          ${name}-src-${version}
    worksrcdir          ${distname}/src

Some mirrors require special options for a resource to be properly fetched.

fetch.type

Change the fetch type. This is only necessary if a CVS, svn, git or hg checkout is be used. standard is used for a normal http or ftp fetch using ${distfiles} and is used as default.

  • Default: standard

  • Values: standard cvs svn git

  • Example:

    fetch.type          svn
    svn.url             svn://example.org
    svn.revision        2100
fetch.user

HTTP or FTP user to fetch the resource.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
fetch.password

HTTP or FTP password to fetch the resource.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
fetch.use_epsv

Whether to use EPSV command for FTP transfers.

  • Default: yes

  • Example:

    fetch.use_epsv      no
fetch.ignore_sslcert

Whether to ignore the host SSL certificate (for HTTPS).

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    fetch.ignore_sslcert    yes

CVS may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via CVS may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged.

The cvs fetch.type is used to fetch source code from a CVS repository.

cvs.root

Specify the url from which to fetch files.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    cvs.root            :pserver:anonymous@cvs.sv.gnu.org:/sources/emacs
cvs.password

Password to login to the CVS server.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    cvs.password        nice-password
cvs.tag

Optional for fetching with CVS, this specifies the code revision to checkout.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    cvs.tag             HEAD
cvs.date

A date that identifies the CVS code set to checkout.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    cvs.date            "12-April-2007"
cvs.module

A CVS module from which to check out the code.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    cvs.module          Sources

Subversion may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via Subversion may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged.

The svn fetch.type is used to fetch source code from an svn repository.

svn.url

This specifies the url from which to fetch files.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    svn.url             http://www.example.com/svn-repo/mydirectory
    svn.url             svn://svn.example.com/svn-repo/mydirectory
svn.revision

Optional tag for fetching with Subversion, this specifies the peg revision to checkout; it corresponds to the @REV syntax of the svn cli.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    svn.revision        37192
svn.method

Optional tag for fetching with Subversion, this specifies whether to check out the code into a working copy, or just export it without the working copy metadata. An export is preferable because it takes half the disk space, but some software expects to be built in a working copy (for example because it wants to record the revision number into itself somewhere).

  • Default: export

  • Example:

    svn.method          checkout

Git may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via Git may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged.

The git fetch.type is used to fetch source code from a git repository.

git.url

This specifies the url from which to fetch files.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    git.url             git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
    git.url             http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
git.branch

Optional tag for fetching with git, this specifies the tag or other commit-ish that git should checkout. Note that any tag on a branch besides HEAD should be prefixed by origin/.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    git.branch             72bf1c8
    git.branch             origin/next

Mercurial may be used as an alternative method of fetching distribution files using the keywords in this section. However, fetching via Mercurial may cause non-reproducible builds, so it is strongly discouraged.

The hg fetch.type is used to fetch fource code from a Mercurial repository.

hg.url

This specifies the url from which to fetch files.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    hg.url              http://www.kernel.org/hg/index.cgi/linux-2.6/
    hg.url              http://hg.intevation.org/mercurial
hg.tag

Optional tag which should be fetched. Can be a Mercurial tag or a revision. To prevent non-reproducible builds use of tip as revision is discouraged.

  • Default: tip

  • Example:

    hg.tag              v1.3
    hg.tag              ceb884843737

The list of keywords related to the checksum phase.

checksums

Checksum(s) of the distribution files. For ports with multiple distribution files, filenames must be included to associate files with their checksums.

At least two checksum types (e.g., rmd160 and sha256) should be used to ensure the integrity of the distfiles.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    checksums           rmd160  0c1147242adf476f5e93f4d59b553ee3ea378b23 \
                        sha256  baf8a29ff721178317aac7b864c2d392b1accc02de8677dd24c18fd5717bf26e
    checksums           ${distname}${extract.suffix} \
                            rmd160  0c1147242adf476f5e93f4d59b553ee3ea378b23 \
                            sha256  883715307c31ae2c145db15d2404d89a837f4d03d7e6932aed21d1d1f21dad89 \
                        hobbit.tar.gz \
                            rmd160  82b9991f3bf0ceedbf74c188c5fa44b98b5e40c9 \
                            sha256  2c3afd16915e9f8eac2351673f8b599f5fd2ff9064d4dfe61f750d72bab740b3

The list of keywords related to the extract phase.

extract.asroot

This keyword is used to specify that the extract phase should be done as the root user.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    extract.asroot      no
extract.suffix

This keyword is used to specify the extract suffix type.

  • Default: .tar.gz

  • Example:

    extract.suffix      .tgz
use_7z

This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the 7z algorithm. When invoked, it automatically sets:

extract.suffix = .7z
extract.cmd    = 7za

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_7z           yes
use_bzip2

This keyword is for downloads that are tarred and bzipped. When invoked, it automatically sets:

extract.suffix = .tar.bz2
extract.cmd    = bzip

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_bzip2           yes
use_lzma

This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the lzma algorithm. When invoked, it automatically sets:

extract.suffix    = .lzma
extract.cmd       = lzma

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_lzma             yes
use_zip

This keyword is for downloads that are zipped. When invoked, it automatically sets:

extract.suffix    = .zip
extract.cmd       = unzip
extract.pre_args  = -q
extract.post_args = "-d ${portpath}/${workdir}"

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_zip             yes
use_xz

This keyword is for downloads that are compressed using the xz tool. When invoked, it automatically sets:

extract.suffix    = .tar.xz
extract.cmd       = xz

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_xz             yes
extract.mkdir

This keyword is used to specify if the directory worksrcdir is part of the distfile or if it should be created automatically and the distfiles should be extracted there instead. This is useful for distfiles with a flat structure which would pollute the worksrcdir with lots of files.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    extract.mkdir       yes
extract.only, extract.only-append, extract.only-delete

List of files to extract into ${worksrcpath}. Only use if default extract behavior is not correct for your port.

  • Default: ${distfiles}

  • Example:

    extract.only        foo.tar.gz
    extract.only-append     bar.tar.gz
    extract.only-delete     foo.tar.gz
extract.cmd

Command to perform extraction.

  • Default: gzip

  • Example:

    extract.cmd         gunzip
extract.args, extract.pre_args, extract.post_args

Main arguments to extract.cmd; additional arguments passed before and after the main arguments.

  • Default: ${distpath}/${distfile}

  • Example:

    extract.args        ${distpath}/${distfile}
    
    

The following argument modifiers are available:

  • extract.pre_args, defaults to: -dc

  • extract.post_args, defaults to: "| tar -xf -"

  • Examples:

    extract.pre_args    xf
    extract.post_args   "| gnutar -x"

The list of keywords related to the patch phase.

patch.dir

Specify the base path for patch files.

  • Default: ${worksrcpath}

  • Example:

    patch.dir           ${worksrcpath}/util
patch.cmd

Specify the command to be used for patching files.

  • Default: patch

  • Example:

    patch.cmd           cat
patchfiles, patchfiles-append, patchfiles-delete

Specify patch files to be applied for a port; list modifiers specify patchfiles to be added or removed from a previous patchfile declaration.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    patchfiles          patch-Makefile.in \
                        patch-source.c
    patchfiles-append   patch-configure
    patchfiles-delete   patch-src-Makefile.in
patch.args, patch.pre_args, patch.post_args

Main arguments to patch.cmd; optional argument modifiers pass arguments before and after the main arguments.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    patch.args          ???
    
    

The following argument modifiers are available:

  • patch.pre_args, defaults to: -p0

  • patch.post_args, defaults to: none

  • Examples:

    patch.pre_args      -p1
    patch.post_args     ???

The list of keywords related to the configure phase.

MacPorts base sets some important default configure options, so should use the -append version of most configure keywords so you don't overwrite them. For example, MacPorts base sets default configure.cflags so you should always use configure.cflags-append to set additional CFLAGS in Portfiles.

use_configure

Sets if the configure phase should be run. Can be used if the port has no ./configure script.

  • Default: yes

  • Example:

    use_configure    no
configure.cmd, configure.cmd-append, configure.cmd-delete

Selects the command to be run in the default configure phase.

  • Default: ./configure

  • Example:

    configure.cmd       ./config.sh
configure.env, configure.env-append, configure.env-delete

Set environment variables for configure; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile configure.env keyword, or a default set by MacPorts base. If available, it is encouraged to use the predefined options (like configure.cflags) instead of modifying configure.env directly.

  • Default: CFLAGS=-I${prefix}/include LDFLAGS=-L${prefix}/lib

  • Example:

    configure.env       QTDIR=${prefix}/lib/qt3
    configure.env-append    ABI=32
    configure.env-delete    TCLROOT=${prefix}
configure.optflags, configure.optflags-append, configure.optflags-delete

Set optimization compiler flags; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.optflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: -O2

  • Example:

    configure.optflags    -Os
    configure.optflags-append     -finline-functions
    configure.optflags-delete     -O2
configure.cflags, configure.cflags-append, configure.cflags-delete

Set CFLAGS compiler flags; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.cflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    configure.cflags    -Os -flat_namespace
    configure.cflags-append     "-undefined suppress"
    configure.cflags-delete     -O2
configure.ldflags, configure.ldflags-append, configure.ldflags-delete

Set LDFLAGS compiler flags; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.ldflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: -L${prefix}/lib

  • Example:

    configure.ldflags   "-L${worksrcpath}/zlib -lz"
    configure.ldflags-append    "-L/usr/X11R6/lib -L${worksrcpath}/lib"
    configure.ldflags-delete    -L${prefix}/lib/db44
configure.cppflags, configure.cppflags-append, configure.cppflags-delete

Set CPPFLAGS to be passed to the C processor; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.cppflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: -I${prefix}/include

  • Example:

    configure.cppflags  -I${worksrcpath}/include
    configure.cppflags-append   "-I/usr/X11R6/lib -I${worksrcpath}/lib -DHAVE_RRD_12X"
    configure.cppflags-delete   -I${prefix}/lib/db44
configure.cxxflags, configure.cxxflags-append, configure.cxxflags-delete

Set CXXFLAGS to be passed to the C++ processor; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.cxxflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.objcflags, configure.objcflags-append, configure.objcflags-delete

TODO: add description

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.classpath, configure.classpath-append, configure.classpath-delete

TODO: add description

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.macosx_deployment_target, configure.macosx_deployment_target-append, configure.macosx_deployment_target-delete

TODO: add description

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.fflags, configure.fflags-append, configure.fflags-delete

Set FFLAGS to be passed to the Fortran compiler; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.fflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    configure.fflags    -Os
configure.fcflags, configure.fcflags-append, configure.fcflags-delete

Set FCFLAGS to be passed to the Fortran compiler; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.fcflags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    configure.fcflags   -Os
configure.f90flags, configure.f90flags-append, configure.f90flags-delete

Set F90FLAGS to be passed to the Fortran 90 compiler; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile configure.f90flags keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: ${configure.optflags}

  • Example:

    configure.f90flags  -Os
configure.cc

Set CC compiler flags for selecting a C compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.cc        ${prefix}/bin/gcc-mp-4.2
configure.cpp

Set CPP compiler flags for selecting a C preprocessor.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.cpp       /usr/bin/cpp-3.3
configure.cxx

Set CXX compiler flags for selecting a C++ compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.cxx       /usr/bin/g++-4.0
configure.objc

Set OBJC compiler flags for selecting an Objective-C compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.objc      /usr/bin/gcc-4.0
configure.fc

Set FC compiler flags for selecting a Fortran compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.fc        ${prefix}/bin/gfortran-mp-4.2
configure.f77

Set F77 compiler flags for selecting a Fortran 77 compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.f77       ${prefix}/bin/gfortran-mp-4.2
configure.f90

Set F90 compiler flags for selecting a Fortran 90 compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.f90       ${prefix}/bin/gfortran-mp-4.2
configure.javac

Set JAVAC compiler flags for selecting a Java compiler.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.javac     ${prefix}/bin/jikes
configure.compiler

Select a compiler suite to fill the compiler environment variables. All variables/tools a compiler suite can provide are set. Manually set variables are not overwritten. Dependencies are not added for you, as they may be just build- or also run-dependencies. Keep in mind that not all compiler suites might be available on your platform: gcc-3.3 is available on Mac OS X 10.3 and 10.4 PowerPC, gcc-4.0 is available on 10.4+, gcc-4.2 and llvm-gcc-4.2 are available on 10.5 and 10.6, and clang is available on 10.6.

Only use it if a port really needs a different compiler.

  • Default: gcc-4.0 on Mac OS X 10.4 and 10.5

  • Default: gcc-4.2 with Xcode 3.2 on Mac OS X 10.6

  • Default: llvm-gcc-4.2 with Xcode 4.0 and 4.1 on Mac OS X 10.6 and 10.7

  • Default: clang with Xcode 4.2 and up on Mac OS X 10.6 and up

  • Values: gcc-3.3 gcc-4.0 gcc-4.2 llvm-gcc-4.2 clang apple-gcc-4.0 apple-gcc-4.2 macports-gcc-4.1 macports-gcc-4.2 macports-gcc-4.3 macports-gcc-4.4 macports-gcc-4.5 macports-gcc-4.6 macports-gcc-4.7 macports-gcc-4.8 macports-clang-2.9 macports-clang-3.0 macports-clang-3.1 macports-clang-3.2

  • Example:

    configure.compiler  macports-gcc-4.5
configure.perl

Set PERL flag for selecting a Perl interpreter.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.perl      ${prefix}/bin/perl5.12
configure.python

Set PYTHON flag for selecting a Python interpreter.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.python    ${prefix}/bin/python2.7
configure.ruby

Set RUBY flag for selecting a Ruby interpreter.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.ruby      ${prefix}/bin/ruby
configure.install

Set INSTALL flag for selecting an install tool; used for copying files and creating directories.

  • Default: /usr/bin/install

  • Example:

    configure.install   ${prefix}/bin/ginstall
configure.awk

Set AWK flag for selecting an awk executable.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.awk       ${prefix}/bin/gawk
configure.bison

Set BISON flag for selecting a bison executable, a parser generator.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.bison     /usr/bin/bison
configure.pkg_config

Set PKG_CONFIG flag for helping find pkg_config, a tool for retrieving information about installed libraries.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    configure.pkg_config    ${prefix}/bin/pkg-config
configure.pkg_config_path

Set PKG_CONFIG_PATH flag for telling pkg_config where to search for information about installed libraries.

  • Default: ${prefix}/lib/pkgconfig:${prefix}/share/pkgconfig

  • Example:

    configure.pkg_config_path   ${python.prefix}/lib/pkgconfig
configure.args, configure.pre_args, configure.post_args

Main arguments to configure.cmd; optional argument modifiers pass arguments before and after the main arguments.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    configure.args      --bindir=${prefix}/bin
    
    

The following argument modifiers are available:

  • configure.pre_args, defaults to: --prefix=${prefix}

  • configure.post_args, defaults to: none

  • Examples:

    configure.pre_args  --prefix=${prefix}/share/bro
    configure.post_args OPT="-D__DARWIN_UNIX03"

Universal keywords are used to make a port compile on OS X for multiple architectures.

Note

There is a default universal variant made available to all ports by MacPorts base, so redefining universal keywords should only be done to make a given port compile if the default options fail to do so.

configure.universal_args

Arguments used in the configure script to build the port universal.

  • Default: --disable-dependency-tracking

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.universal_cflags

Additional flags to put in the CFLAGS environment variable when invoking the configure script. Default value is based on ${configure.universal_archs}.

  • Default:

    (PowerPC Tiger) -isysroot ${developer_dir}/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Intel Tiger / Leopard) -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Snow Leopard and later) -arch x86_64 -arch i386

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.universal_cppflags

Additional flags to put in the CPPFLAGS environment variable when invoking the configure script.

  • Default:

    (PowerPC Tiger) -isysroot ${developer_dir}/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk

    (others) none

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.universal_cxxflags

Additional flags to put in the CXXFLAGS environment variable when invoking the configure script. Default value is based on ${configure.universal_archs}.

  • Default:

    (PowerPC Tiger) -isysroot ${developer_dir}/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Intel Tiger / Leopard) -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Snow Leopard and later) -arch x86_64 -arch i386

  • Example:

    TODO: add example
configure.universal_ldflags

Additional flags to put in the LDFLAGS environment variable when invoking the configure script.

  • Default:

    (PowerPC Tiger) -Wl,-syslibroot,${developer_dir}/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Intel Tiger / Leopard) -arch i386 -arch ppc

    (Snow Leopard and later) -arch x86_64 -arch i386

  • Example:

    TODO: add example

The list of configure keywords available for ports that need automake and/or autoconf.

use_autoreconf

Whether or not to use autoreconf

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_autoreconf      yes
use_automake

Whether or not to use automake.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_automake        yes
automake.env

Environment variables to pass to automake.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    automake.env        CFLAGS=-I${prefix}/include
automake.args

Arguments to pass to automake.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    automake.args       --foreign
automake.dir

Directory in which to run ${automake.cmd}.

  • Default: ${worksrcpath}

  • Example:

    automake.dir        ./src
use_autoconf

Whether or not to use autoconf.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    use_autoconf        yes
autoconf.env

Environmental variables to pass to autoconf.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    autoconf.env        CFLAGS=-I${prefix}/include/gtk12
autoconf.args

Arguments to pass to autoconf.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    autoconf.args       "-l src/aclocaldir"
autoconf.dir

Directory in which to run ${autoconf.cmd}.

  • Default: ${worksrcpath}

  • Example:

    autoconf.dir        src

The list of keywords related to the build phase.

build.cmd

Make command to run in ${worksrcdir}. Only use it if you can't use build.type.

  • Default: make

  • Example:

    build.cmd           scons
build.type

Defines which build software is required and sets ${build.cmd} accordingly. The available options are BSD Make, GNU Make, and Xcode.

  • Default: default (the default Make on the current platform)

  • Values: default bsd gnu xcode

  • Example:

    build.type          bsd
build.args, build.pre_args, build.post_args

Main arguments to ${build.cmd}; optional argument modifiers pass arguments before and after the main arguments.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    build.args          -DNOWARN
    
    

The following argument modifiers are available:

  • build.pre_args, defaults to: ${build.target}

  • build.post_args, defaults to: none

  • Examples:

    build.pre_args      -project AudioSlicer.xcode
    build.post_args     CFLAGS_SYS="-DUSE_FREETYPE -DPREFER_FREETYPE"
build.target, build.target-append, build.target-delete

Build target to pass to ${build.cmd}; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile build.target keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: all

  • Example:

    build.target        all-src
    build.target-append     doc extra
    build.target-delete     compat
build.env, build.env-append, build.env-delete

Set environment variables for build; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile build.env keyword, or a default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: none

use_parallel_build

This keyword is for specifying whether or not it is safe for a port to use multiple CPUs or multiple cores in parallel during its build phase. If use_parallel_build is not set to no in a given port, the option -j${build.jobs} is passed to ${build.cmd} (if ${build.cmd} is make or scons).

  • Default: yes

  • Example:

    use_parallel_build  no
build.jobs

The number of simultaneous jobs to run when parallel build is enabled. The default value is based on the variable buildmakejobs in macports.conf.

  • Default: If buildmakejobs is 0, the number of CPU cores in the machine, or the number of GB of physical memory plus one, whichever is less. Otherwise, the actual value of ${buildmakejobs}.

The list of keywords related to the test phase.

test.run

Enable running test suites bundled with a port.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    test.run            yes
test.cmd

Test command to run relative to ${worksrcdir}.

  • Default: ${build.cmd}

  • Example:

    test.cmd            checks.sh
test.target

Test target to pass to ${test.cmd}.

  • Default: test

  • Example:

    test.target         checks
test.env, test.env-append, test.env-delete

Set environment variables for test; list modifiers add and delete items from a previous Portfile test.env keyword, or a default set by MacPorts base.

Often DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH is set here to support testing dynamically linked libraries.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    test.env       DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH=${worksrcpath}/src/.libs

The list of keywords related to the destroot phase.

destroot.cmd

Install command to run relative to ${worksrcdir}.

  • Default: ${build.cmd}

  • Example:

    destroot.cmd        scons
destroot.args, destroot.pre_args, destroot.post_args

Main arguments to ${destroot.cmd}; optional argument modifiers pass arguments before and after the main arguments.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    destroot.args       BINDIR=${prefix}/bin
    
    

The following argument modifiers are available:

  • destroot.pre_args, defaults to: ${destroot.target}

  • destroot.post_args, defaults to: ${destroot.destdir}

  • Examples:

    destroot.pre_args   -project AudioSlicer.xcode
    destroot.post_args  INSTDIR=${destroot}${prefix}
destroot.target, destroot.target-append, destroot.target-delete

Install target to pass to ${destroot.cmd}; list modifiers add or delete items from a previous Portfile destroot.target keyword or the default set by MacPorts base.

  • Default: install

  • Example:

    destroot.target     install install-config install-commandmode
    destroot.target-append  install-plugins
    destroot.target-delete  install-commandmode
destroot.destdir

Arguments passed to ${destroot.cmd} via ${destroot.post_args} to install correctly into the destroot.

  • Default: DESTDIR=${destroot}

  • Example:

    destroot.destdir    prefix=${destroot}${prefix}

Note

If an application's Makefile properly supports the DESTDIR variable, MacPorts will automatically destroot the port properly. A port must destroot properly or the port will not install correctly, upgrade, or uninstall. If not, you may need to set this variable, or even patch the application's Makefile.

destroot.umask

Umask to use during destroot.

  • Default: 022

  • Example:

    destroot.umask      002
destroot.keepdirs

A list of directories that should not be removed if empty upon destroot completion.

  • Default: ???

  • Example:

    destroot.keepdirs   ${destroot}${prefix}/var/run \
                        ${destroot}${prefix}/var/log \
                        ${destroot}${prefix}/var/cache/mrtg
destroot.violate_mtree

MacPorts tests for compliance to the common directory structure in ${prefix}. If a port is not compliant with the standard, set it to yes.

You can find the macports standard in MacPorts File Hierarchy or in the porthier(7) man page.

If destroot.violate_mtree is set to yes, the following warning is issued during the installation.

Warning: portname requests to install files outside the common directory structure!

This means that the port installed files outside of their normal locations in ${prefix}. These could be files totally outside of ${prefix}, which could cause problems on your computer, or files inside of ${prefix} that are not in a standard location. Use port contents portname to see the location for all files that were installed by a given port.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    destroot.violate_mtree      yes

Free and open source software is highly modular, and MacPorts ports often require that other ports be installed beforehand; these prerequisites for a given port are called a port's dependencies.

The keywords used when specifying dependencies in a Portfile are related to port install phases, and they refer to what are called library, build, fetch, extract and run dependencies. Though all of them install dependencies before a given port is installed, specifying dependencies with the correct keyword is important for proper port upgrade and uninstall behavior, or when running targets other than install. For example, you may not uninstall a port that is a library dependency for another installed port, though you may remove one that is a build dependency. Likewise, if you run the fetch target for a port, only the fetch dependencies will be installed first, so they should be all that is needed for that target.

depends_fetch, depends_fetch-append, depends_fetch-delete

The list of dependencies to check before phases fetch, checksum, extract, patch, configure, build, destroot, install, and package. Fetch dependencies are needed to download the distfiles for a port, and are not needed at all once the software is installed.

depends_extract, depends_extract-append, depends_extract-delete

The list of dependencies to check before phases extract, patch, configure, build, destroot, install, and package. Extract dependencies are needed to unpack a port's distfiles into the work directory, and are not needed at all once the software is installed.

depends_build, depends_build-append, depends_build-delete

The list of dependencies to check before phases configure, build, destroot, install, and package. Build dependencies are needed when software is being built, but not needed at all once it is installed.

depends_lib, depends_lib-append, depends_lib-delete

The list of dependencies to check before phases configure, build, destroot, install, and package. Library dependencies are needed both at build time (for headers and libraries to link against) and at run time.

depends_run, depends_run-append, depends_run-delete

The list of dependencies to check before phases destroot, install, and package. Run dependencies are needed when the software is run, but not to compile it.

There are two types of dependencies: port dependencies and file dependencies. Port dependencies can be satisfied by reference to a port (the MacPorts registry is queried), or by reference to a file (whether provided by a port or not). The most commonly-used type of dependencies in Portfiles are port dependencies, because dependencies should be provided by MacPorts ported software whenever possible, and usually only one port can provide the needed libraries and files.

But when satisfying a dependency with vendor-supplied software is preferred for special reasons, or when it is possible for more than one port to satisfy a dependency, then file dependencies may be used. An example of the former is with ubiquitous utilities like awk, grep, make or sed, where OS X's versions are often sufficient; an example of the latter is with -devel ports—these ports provide a different version of the same files (though only one can be activated at a time).

Port dependencies, the preferred type, are specified as shown in these examples:

depends_lib         port:rrdtool port:apache2

depends_build       port:libtool

depends_run         port:apache2 port:php5

File dependencies should only be used if one of the reasons listed above applies. There are three types: bin for programs, lib for libraries, and path for any installed file. File dependencies are specifed in the form: <type>:<filespec>:<port>.

For bin dependencies, <filespec> is the name of a program in a bin directory like ${prefix}/bin, /usr/bin, /bin, and the associated sbin directories.

For lib dependencies, <filespec> is the name of a library (but without its extension) in a lib directory like ${prefix}/lib, /usr/lib, /lib, some Framework directories, and those found in environment variables like DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH.

For path dependencies, <filespec> is the complete absolute path to the file, or more usually, when the file is inside ${prefix}, it is specified relative to ${prefix}. Since path dependencies are the only ones which would find files only in an absolute path or a path inside ${prefix} they are - in cases when a port needs to be more restrictive - often used instead of bin and lib dependencies .

Note that the <port> specified is only installed if the specified library, binary, or file is not found. See the examples below:

depends_lib         lib:libX11.6:xorg

depends_build       bin:glibtool:libtool

depends_run         path:lib/libltdl.a:libtool

MacPorts variants are conditional modifications of port installation behavior during port installation. There are two types of variants: user-selected variants and platform variants. User-selected variants are options selected by a user when a port is installed; platform variants are selected automatically by MacPorts base according to the OS or hardware platform (darwin, freebsd, linux, i386, powerpc, etc.).

User-selected variants are those that are defined so a user can invoke them to enable port options at install time. They also allow a port author a level of modularity and control using the keyword default_variants (see below).

Note

Variant names may contain only letters, numbers and underscore characters. In particular, the hyphen is not a valid character in variant names because it would conflict with the notation for deselecting a variant.

variant name [requires variant1 variant2 ...] [conflicts variant1 variant2 ...] [description description]

The variant declaration may contain any keywords that can be placed in a Portfile's global section. If you wish to execute system (shell) calls or Tcl extensions during the execution of a port phase, you should place those statements within a variant_isset conditional within a phase declaration and not within the variant declaration itself. Dependencies and conflicts with other variants in the same port can be expressed with requires and conflicts options as shown below.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    variant gnome requires glib {
        configure.args-append   --with-gnome
        depends_lib-append      port:gnome-session
    }
    variant apache2 conflicts apache {
        configure.args-append \
            --with-apxs2=${prefix}/apache2/bin/apxs
    }
default_variants

The optional default_variants keyword is used to specify variants that a port author wishes to have enabled by default. This allows for Portfile modularity and also allows users to suppress default variants if they wish.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    default_variants    +ssl +tcpd
    
    

Default variants may be suppressed by preceding a variant name with a - as shown in this example.

%% port install foo -ssl
universal_variant

When using MacPorts on Mac OS X, a universal variant is defined by default to configure ports with universal flags. The variant can be overridden if the default code does not work (see the Configure Universal section above), or suppressed if a universal variant does not function properly for a given port.

  • Default: yes

  • Example:

    universal_variant   no

User-selected variants ought to provide a description, which will be displayed when using command port variants foo. The syntax used for the description keyword is shown below.

variant bar description {Add IMAP support} {}

Descriptions should be short but clear, and not merely repeat the name of the variant. To allow for compatibility for possible MacPorts GUI support, a good rule of thumb is to use sentence fragments for brevity, with a capitalized first letter and no trailing punctuation. Think of them as short labels such as ones you'd find next to a GUI checkbox or radio button. Thus, it would be better to write Build with support for foo instead of Builds with support for foo; Add support for foo would be better than Adds support for foo.

Variant descriptions are strings, so one should take care not to put whitespace between the brackets and the beginning and end of the variant description, and also not to use unnceccessary whitespace, unlike with port descriptions and long_descriptions.

Platform variants are either defined by default in MacPorts base, or defined by a port author to customize a port's installation according to OS (operating system) or hardware platform.

platform os [version] [arch]

MacPorts allows platform-specific port options to be specified in a Portfile for handling differences between platforms and versions of the same platform.

platform darwin version can be used to handle different tasks depending on the version of Darwin, the core operating system underlying Mac OS X. version is the major version of Darwin, and can be 8 for Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, 9 for 10.5 Leopard, 10 for 10.6 Snow Leopard or 11 for 10.7 Lion.

  • Examples:

    platform darwin 10 {
        configure.env-append LIBS=-lresolv
    }
    platform darwin i386 {
        configure.args-append --disable-mmx
    }
    platform darwin 8 powerpc {
        configure.compiler gcc-3.3
    }

Note

Though a combination of OS version and hardware platform may be specified in a single platform statement (i.e. darwin 8 i386), it is not possible to specify a range of platforms with a single statement. For example, to select Darwin versions 9 and 10 while excluding all others, you would need two statements: platform darwin 9 and platform darwin 10. Alternately, you could make that behavior the port's default, and add a platform darwin 8 block to remove it again.

A MacPorts Portfile is a Tcl script, so it may contain any arbitrary Tcl code you may learn about in a Tcl reference manual. However, few authors will use arbitrary Tcl code; the vast majority will use Tcl extensions that are coded within MacPorts for performing the most common tasks needed for Portfiles. The list below is a list of Tcl extensions provided by MacPorts base.

file

Description.

file copy

file rename

file delete [-force]

file mkdir

macros

Description.

copy

Shorthand alternative to file copy.

move

Shorthand alternative to file rename.

delete file ...

Deletes each of the given files/directories. Behaves similarly to file delete -force except that file delete -force will fail to delete directories properly on 10.3 systems.

touch

Mimics the BSD touch command.

ln

Mimics the BSD ln command.

xinstall

xinstall copies files and creates directories; it is intended to be compatible with install(1).

xinstall [-o owner] [-g group] [-m mode] [file1 file2 ...] directory

Install the specified file(s) to a destination directory.

xinstall [-o owner] [-g group] [-m mode] [-W dir] [file1 file2 ...] directory

Change to dir and install file(s) to a destination directory.

eval xinstall [-o owner] [-g group] [-m mode] [glob pattern] directory

Install the file(s) matching the glob pattern to a destination directory.

xinstall -d [-o owner] [-g group] [-m mode] directory

Create a directory including parent directories if necessary.

Defaults:

  • owner -

  • group -

  • mode -

Examples:

xinstall -m 640 ${worksrcpath}/doc README \
   ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
xinstall -m 640 -W ${worksrcpath}/doc README INSTALL COPY \
   ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
eval xinstall -m 640 [glob ${worksrcpath}/doc/*] \
   ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
xinstall -d ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${name}
strsed

strsed can be used for string manipulations using regular expressions. It supports a small subset of the commands known from sed(1).

strsed string s/regex/replacement/

Replaces the first instance of regex with replacement. Refer to re_format(7) for a definition of regular expression syntax.

strsed string g/regex/replacement/

The same as the previous format, except all instances of the pattern will be replaced, not only the first (mnemonic: 'g' is for global).

reinplace

Allows text specified by a regular expression to be replaced by new text, in-place (the file will be updated itself, no need to place output into a new file and rename).

reinplace [-locale locale] [-n] [-W dir] [--] command file ...

Replace text given by the regular expression portion of the command with the replacement text, in all files specified.

Use -locale to set the locale

-n is passed to sed to suppress echoing result

-W to set a common working directory for multiple files

Use -E to use the extended regular expression style (see re_format(7) for a description of the basic and extended styles)

Use -- to end option processing and allow any further dashes not to be treated as options.

Examples:

reinplace -W ${worksrcpath} "s|/usr/local|${prefix}|g" configure setup.py
reinplace "s|@@PREFIX@@|${prefix}|g" ${worksrcpath}/Makefile
user/group

adduser username [uid=uid] [gid=gid] [passwd=passwd] [realname=realname] [home=home] [shell=shell]

Add a new local user to the system with the specified uid, gid, password, real name, home directory and login shell.

existsuser username

Check if a local user exists. Returns the uid for the given user, or 0 if the user wasn't found. Checking for the root user is not supported because its uid is 0, and it will always exist anyway.

nextuid

Returns the highest used uid plus one.

addgroup group [gid=gid] [passwd=passwd] [realname=realname] [users=users]

Add a new local group to the system, with the specified gid, password, real name, and with a list users as members.

existsgroup group

Check if a local group exists and return the corresponding gid. This can be used with adduser:

addgroup foo
adduser foo gid=[existsgroup foo]
nextgid

Returns the highest used gid plus one.

External program execution

Use only when ....

A StartupItem is a MacPorts facility to run daemons, a Unix term for programs that run continuously in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user; for example, mail servers, network listeners, etc. Ports that use StartupItem keywords create Mac OS X scripts for launchd, which is the Apple facility introduced with Mac OS X 10.4 to replace xinetd for starting and managing daemons. To support launchd, a program named daemondo is provided by MacPorts base that serves as an adapter between Mac OS X's launchd and daemons (executable StartupItems) or traditional Unix startup scripts that start daemons (script StartupItems).

There are three categories of StartupItem keywords. Those that trigger StartupItem creation and logging, those that specify attributes of executable StartupItems, and those that specify attributes of script StartupItems.

Note

The variable startupitem_type in ${prefix}/etc/macports/macports.conf may be set to none to globally override all StartupItem keywords found in Portfiles; this prevents StartupItems from being created.

The keywords in this section may be used with either executable or script StartupItems (see below).

startupitem.create

Trigger the creation of a StartupItem.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    startupitem.create      yes
startupitem.name

Sets the name for the StartupItem. Defaults to the name of the port, so this keyword is usually unnecessary.

  • Default: ${name}

  • Example:

    startupitem.name        dhcpd
startupitem.logfile

Path to a logfile for logging events about the lifetime of the StartupItem. Depending on the type of StartupItem, and the manner in which it is started, standard output from the daemon may also be directed to the logfile.

  • Default: /dev/null

  • Example:

    startupitem.logfile     ${prefix}/var/log/mydaemon.log
startupitem.logevents

Control whether or not to log events to the log file. If logevents is set, events with timestamps are logged to the logfile.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    startupitem.logevents   yes
startupitem.netchange

Cause the daemon to be restarted when a change in network state is detected.

  • Default: no

  • Example:

    startupitem.netchange   yes

Daemons run continuously, so monitoring the health of daemon processes and restarting them if they die is an important StartupItems' feature. Executable StartupItems are preferred over script StartupItems because daemondo launches the daemon directly, rather than indirectly via a script, and therefore it automatically knows how to monitor a daemon process and restart it if it dies. Daemons used with executable StartupItems may be programs or scripts (shell, perl, python, etc.) as long as the script itself is the daemon, rather than merely what launches the daemon. In the latter case script StartupItems are to be used.

Note

Since script and executable are mutually exclusive StartupItem types, the startupitem.executable keyword may not be used in a Portfile that uses any keywords listed in the Script StartupItems section.

startupitem.executable

Specifies the name of the daemon to be run. It may have multiple arguments, but they must be appropriate for a call to exec; arbitrary shell code may not be used.

Note

Some daemons daemonize by detaching themselves from the controlling tty before sending themselves to the background, thus making themselves a child of the original process. A daemon to be started with startupitem.executable must not be allowed to do this or daemondo will think the process has died and start multiple instances. Often daemons have a command switch to run in the foreground, and this method should be used for daemons that detach.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    startupitem.executable  ${prefix}/sbin/vm-pop3d -d 10 -t 600

Note

Do not wrap values in quotes if passing arguments to the daemon; executable StartupItem elements must be tagged individually so the spaces between arguments serve as delimiters for string tags. For example, this startupitem key/value pair:

startupitem.executable    ${prefix}/sbin/vm-pop3d -d 10 -t 600

generates a .plist file with these tags:

<key>ProgramArguments</key>
<array>
    <string>/opt/local/bin/daemondo</string>
    <string>--label=vm-pop3d</string>
    <string>--start-cmd</string>
    <string>/opt/local/sbin/vm-pop3d</string>
    <string>-d</string>
    <string>10</string>
    <string>-t</string>
    <string>600</string>
    <string>;</string>
</array>

StartupItems of type script create a wrapper during port installation for daemondo that that will be used to launch a daemon startup script present in an application's source distribution (MacPorts does not create daemon startup scripts) for daemons that require a script.

Note

Executable StartupItems are the preferred type since script StartupItems launch daemons indirectly, and this requires that port authors use the startupitem.pidfile keyword so that daemondo can check this pid file to see is a daemon process has died and restart it. Any time a script (or an executable) itself serves as a daemon, use the executable StartupItem type so daemondo will launch it directly and track its health automatically. Additionally, since script and executable are mutually exclusive StartupItem types, the startupitem.executable keyword may not be used in a Portfile that uses script StartupItem keywords.

A typical snippet of a startup script that may be used with a script StartupItem is shown below. Notice that the script is not a daemon; rather the script indirectly launches the vm-pop3d daemon.

#!/bin/sh

case "$1" in
    start)
        echo -n "Starting vm-pop3d: "
        /opt/local/sbin/vm-pop3d -d 10 -t 600

[... trimmed ...]
startupitem.start, startupitem.stop, startupitem.restart

Specify a shell script to start, stop, and restart the daemon. In the absence of startupitem.restart, the daemon will be restarted by taking the stop action, followed by the start action.

  • Default: none

  • Examples:

    startupitem.start       "${prefix}/share/mysql/mysql.server start"
    startupitem.stop        "${prefix}/share/mysql/mysql.server stop"
    startupitem.restart     "${prefix}/share/mysql/mysql.server restart"

Note

Wrap the stop, start, and restart values in quotes so they will be placed in the wrapper tagged as a single element.

startupitem.init

Shell code that will be executed prior to any of the options startupitem.start, startupitem.stop and startupitem.restart.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    startupitem.init        BIN=${prefix}/sbin/bacula-fd
startupitem.pidfile

This keyword must be defined properly for daemondo to be able to monitor daemons launched via script StartupItems and restart them if they die. It specifies two things: a process id (PID) file handling method, and a pidfile name and path.

  • Default: none ${prefix}/var/run/${name}.pid

    Default: [none] | [${prefix}/var/run/${name}.pid]

  • Values [none auto manual clean] [/path/to/pidfile]

  • Example:

    startupitem.pidfile     auto ${prefix}/var/run/${name}.pidfile

PID file handling options:

  • none - daemondo will not create or track a PID file, so it won't know when a daemon dies.

  • auto - The started process is expected to create a PID file that contains the PID of the running daemon; daemondo then reads the PID from the file and tracks the process. The started process must delete the PID file if this is necessary.

  • clean - The started process is expected to create a PID file that contains the PID of the running daemon; daemondo then reads the PID from the file and tracks the process, and deletes the PID file if it detects the daemon has died.

  • manual - This option should only be used if an executable StartupItem could be used (daemondo launches a daemon directly) and a port author wants a PID file written for some special use. A PID file is not needed to detect process death for daemons launched directly by daemondo. As with executable StartupItems, daemondo remembers the PID of the launched process and tracks it automatically.

A port with a StartupItem places a link to a .plist file for the port's daemon within /Library/LaunchDaemons/. A .plist file is an XML file; MacPorts installs .plist files tagged as disabled for the sake of security. You may enable a startup script (tag the.plist file as enabled) and load it into launchd with a single command as shown.

%% sudo launchctl load -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.mysql5.plist

You may stop a running startup script, disable it (tag the.plist file as disabled), and unload it from launchd with a single command as shown.

%% sudo launchctl unload -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.mysql5.plist

During port installation a MacPorts StartupItem creates a .plist file in ${prefix}/etc/LaunchDaemons/, and places a symbolic link to the .plist file within /Library/LaunchDaemons/.

For example, the StartupItem for the mysql5 port is org.macports.mysql5.plist, and it is linked as shown.

%% ls -l /Library/LaunchDaemons
org.macports.mysql5.plist ->
     /opt/local/etc/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.mysql5/org.macports.mysql5.plist

For script StartupItems, in addition to a .plist file, a wrapper is also created.

%% ls -l /opt/local/etc/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.mysql5/
-rwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel  475 Aug  2 14:16 mysql5.wrapper
-rw-r--r--   2 root  wheel  975 Aug  2 14:16 org.macports.mysql5.plist

The wrapper manipulates the script as specified in the startupitem.start and startupitem.stop keywords. An example wrapper script snippet is shown below.

#!/bin/sh

# MacPorts generated daemondo support script

# Start
Start()
{
    /opt/local/share/mysql5/mysql/mysql.server start
}

# Stop
Stop()
{
    /opt/local/share/mysql5/mysql/mysql.server stop
}

[... trimmed ...]

Options livecheck and distcheck are especially useful for port maintainers, but others may also find this information valuable.

Livecheck checks to see if MacPorts can query the developer's download site to determine if a newer version of the software has become available since the port was installed.

livecheck.type

Specify what kind of update check to perform.

Open source mirror site options are to use the project's latest file release from sourceforge or googlecode, or the project's date_updated XML tag for freecode. These options are automatically used if a matching ${master_sites} URL is used.

Generic download site options are to specify a moddate (modification date of a URL resource), a regex (retrieve the version by applying a regex to a URL resource), regexm (retrieve the version by applying a multi-line regex to a URL resource), md5 (compares the md5 sum of a URL resource) or none (no check).

  • Default: sourceforge or googlecode if the ${master_sites} is one of these, else freecode.

  • Values: freecode sourceforge googlecode moddate regex regexm md5 none

  • Examples:

    livecheck.type     regex
    livecheck.url       ${homepage}
    livecheck.regex     "Generally Available (\\d+(?:\\.\\d+)*)"
livecheck.name

Name of the project for live checks. Is only used with freecode, sourceforge, and googlecode livechecks.

  • Default: ${name} or the sourceforge, freecode or googlecode project name if it can be guessed from ${master_sites}.

  • Example:

    livecheck.name      hibernate
livecheck.distname

Name of the file release for sourceforge and googlecode checks. For sourceforge releases use the name of the package release. For googlecode releases use the name of the file download, including extension. You may use this keyword without livecheck.version if you replace the version part of the name with (.*).

  • Default: sourceforge: ${livecheck.name}, googlecode: first ${distfiles} item

  • Example:

    livecheck.distname  faad2.src
livecheck.version

Version of the project for a check; used for regex-based checks.

  • Default: ${version}

  • Example:

    livecheck.version   ${name}-${version}
livecheck.url

URL to query for a check.

  • Default:

    • ${homepage} or the first hit among the following sites:

    • http://freecode.com/projects-xml/${livecheck.name}/${livecheck.name}.xml

    • http://sourceforge.net/api/file/index/project-name/${livecheck.name}/rss

    • http://code.google.com/p/${livecheck.name}/downloads/list

  • Example:

    livecheck.url       http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bison/
livecheck.regex

Regular expression to parse the resource for regex checks. Be sure to use a regular expression grouping around the version component.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    livecheck.regex     4th-([a-z0-9.]+)-unix${extract.suffix}
livecheck.md5

md5 checksum to use for an md5 comparison.

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    livecheck.md5       37e6a5b6516a680c7178b72021d3b706

Distcheck reports whether or not the distfile(s) specified in a Portfile are still available on the developer's download site. Examples are given below.

distcheck.check

This option can be used to disable distcheck. It specifies what kind of check should be performed on distfiles: moddate (check if the Portfile is older than the distfile) or none (no check).

  • Default: moddate

  • Example:

    distcheck.check     none

PortGroups are simply include files for portfiles. They can define as much or as little as a portgroup author feels is necessary to provide a set of definitions or behaviors common to a group of portfiles, in order that those portfiles can be expressed as simply as possible with minimum redundancy.

See the following folder for PortGroup definitions:

${prefix}/var/macports/sources/rsync.macports.org/release/tarballs/ports/_resources/port1.0/group/

A sample listing follows:

%% ls -1 /opt/local/var/macports/sources/rsync.macports.org/release/tarballs/ports/_resources/port1.0/group/

archcheck-1.0.tcl
cmake-1.0.tcl
crossbinutils-1.0.tcl
gnustep-1.0.tcl
haskell-1.0.tcl
hocbinding-1.0.tcl
hunspelldict-1.0.tcl
kde4-1.0.tcl
kde4-1.1.tcl
.
.
.

The requirements of a minimum portfile using a portgroup varies by portgroup. The sections below devoted to each portgroup (or, for portgroups not documented there yet, the comments in the header of the portgroup file itself) should provide guidance on how each portgroup is used. Prospective MacPorts developers are also encouraged to examine existing portfiles that use these portgroups.

PortGroup gnustep allows for efficient porting of GNUstep-based open source software using the GNU objective-C runtime that defines options for the configuration, build, and destroot phases, and also defines some values for GNUstep-based software. A minimum Portfile using the gnustep PortGroup class need only define the fetch and the checksum phases.

Portfiles using the gnustep PortGroup allow for port authors to set the following keywords in addition to the general Portfile keywords.

gnustep.post_flags

An associative array which specifies the sub-directories relative to ${worksrcpath} and the SHARED_LD_POSTFLAGS variables to be added to GNUmakefile.preamble in those sub-directories. This helps making the patching process easier on Darwin.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    platform darwin {
        array set gnustep.post_flags {
            BundleSubDir "-lfoo -lbar"
        }
    }
gnustep.cc

Define the gcc compiler to use when compiling a port.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: gcc-mp-4.2

  • Example:

    gnustep.cc gcc-mp-4.3
variant with_docs

Many GNUstep packages include a Documentation sub-directory that is not built by default. Enabling this variant builds and installs the included documentation.

  • Type: optional

  • Example:

    %% port install gnustep-gui +with_docs

PortGroup gnustep supports both the traditional gnustep file layout and the new fhs file layout. However, a given ported application does not necessarily support both. The Portfiles have access to many procedures to handle these two layouts:

set_gnustep_make

Sets GNUSTEP_MAKEFILES according to the FilesystemLayout

set_gnustep_env

Sets DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH and PATH for the gnustep FilesystemLayout

gnustep_layout

Returns true (1) if current file layout is gnustep

set_system_library

Sets GNUSTEP_SYSTEM_LIBRARY according to the FilesystemLayout

set_local_library

Sets GNUSTEP_LOCAL_LIBRARY according to the FilesystemLayout

Portfiles using PortGroup gnustep do not need to define the following variables:

categories

Default: gnustep

homepage

Default: http://www.gnustep.org/

master_sites

Default: gnustep:core

depends_lib

Default: gnustep-core

use_configure

Default: no

configure.env

Default: DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH PATH

configure.pre_args-append

Default: CC=gcc-mp-4.2 GNUSTEP_MAKEFILES

build.type

Default: gnu

build.env

Default: DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH PATH

build.pre_args-append

Default: messages=yes

destroot.env

Default: DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH PATH

destroot.pre_args-append

Default: messages=yes

PortGroup haskell simplifies the addition of Haskell packages.

Portfiles using the haskell PortGroup allow for port authors to set the following keywords in addition to the general Portfile keywords.

haskell.setup

This keyword sets a number of port variables.

  • Type: required

  • Synopsis: the first argument is the package name, as called by hackageDB; the second is the version number

  • Example:

    haskell.setup   digest 0.0.0.2

Portfiles using PortGroup haskell do not need to define the following variables:

name

Default: hs-[string tolower ${package}]

version

Default: ${version} (from haskell.setup)

categories

Default: devel haskell

homepage

Default: http://hackage.haskell.org

master_sites

Default: ${homepage}/packages/archive/${package}/${version}

distname

Default: ${package}-${version}

depends_build

Default: ghc

configure, build, and destroot phases

Default: proper setup to run these phases

post-destroot

Default: creates and installs (into destroot) the register.sh and unregister.sh scripts

post-activate

Default: runs the register.sh scripts

livecheck

Default: runs livecheck against the package's information page

PortGroup perl5 allows for efficient porting of perl modules and other perl open source software.

Portfiles using the perl5 PortGroup allow for port authors to set the following keywords in addition to the general Portfile keywords.

perl5.setup

This keyword sets the ${distfile} and ${version}.

  • Type: required

  • Example:

    perl5.setup          Net-Telnet 3.03

Portfiles using PortGroup perl5 do not need to define the following variables:

categories

Default: perl

master_sites

Default: http://search.cpan.org/dist/${distname}

depends_lib

Default: perl5.8

use_configure

Default: no

When the perl5 PortGroup is declared within a Portfile, the following variables are provided during port install.

perl5.version

The MacPorts Perl version.

perl5.bin

The Perl binary path (i.e., ${prefix}/bin/perl).

perl5.lib

Path to the Perl vendor directory.

perl5.archlib

Path to the Perl architecture-dependent modules directory.

PortGroup python allows for efficient porting of python-based open source software.

Note

A number of python-version-specific PortGroups also exist, such as python27 and python32. These should not be used for new development, and ports using them should be migrated to the unified python PortGroup.

Portfiles using the python PortGroup allow for port authors to set the following keywords in addition to the general Portfile keywords.

python.versions

Defines the python versions supported by this port. If the port name starts with py-, then a subport will be defined for each version in the list. For example, if a port named py-foo declares python.versions 26 27, subports py26-foo and py27-foo will be created, and will depend on python26 and python27 respectively.

If the port name does not start with py-, it is interpreted as an application written in python rather than a python module. In this case, no subports are defined, and python.versions defaults to the value of python.default_version, which must be set. For example, if a port named mercurial sets python.default_version 27, then python.versions will automatically be set to 27, and a dependency on python27 will be added.

  • Type: required for modules, optional for apps

  • Example:

    python.versions     25 26 27
python.default_version

For modules (i.e. name starts with py-), this sets the subport that will be installed if the user asks to install py-foo rather than e.g. py26-foo or py27-foo. If not explicitly set, a reasonable default is chosen from the list in python.versions.

For apps (i.e. name does not start with py-), this chooses which version of python to use, and must be set. It can be changed in variants if desired.

  • Type: required for apps, optional for modules

  • Example:

    python.default_version     32
python.link_binaries

When yes (the default), tells the PortGroup to automatically link any executable binaries installed in the bin/ directory within the framework into ${prefix}/bin.

  • Type: optional

  • Example:

    python.link_binaries     no
python.link_binaries_suffix

Suffix to add the the names of the links created in ${prefix}/bin when ${python.link_binaries} is enabled. Can be cleared if no suffix is desired.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: -${python.branch}

python.add_archflags

When yes (the default), the PortGroup will automatically try to pass the correct arch-specific flags during build time (via the standard CFLAGS, LDFLAGS, etc environment variables). Set this to no and set up those variables in build.env manually if the default does not work.

  • Type: optional

  • Example:

    python.add_archflags     no

When the python PortGroup is declared within a Portfile, the following variables are provided.

python.version

The python version in use in the current subport. This will be one of the versions listed in python.versions.

python.branch

The python version in use in the current subport, in normal dotted notation. For example, if python.version is 26, python.branch will be 2.6.

python.prefix

The prefix in which the current python version is installed. For framework builds, this is ${frameworks_dir}/Python.framework/Versions/${python.branch}, whereas for non-framework builds, it is the same as ${prefix}.

python.bin

The path to the MacPorts Python executable.

python.lib

The Python dynamic library path, i.e. ${python.prefix}/Python (framework builds) or ${prefix}/lib/libpython2.4.dylib (python24).

python.libdir

The path to python's lib directory, i.e. ${python.prefix}/lib/python${python.branch}.

python.include

Path to the Python include directory.

python.pkgd

Path to the Python site-packages directory. (i.e., ${python.prefix}/lib/python${python.branch}/site-packages).

Portfiles using PortGroup python do not need to define the following variables:

categories

Default: python

depends_lib

Default: port:python${python.version}

use_configure

Default: no

build.cmd

Default: ${python.bin} setup.py --no-user-cfg

build.target

Default: build

destroot.cmd

Default: ${python.bin} setup.py --no-user-cfg

destroot.destdir

Default: --prefix=${python.prefix} --root=${destroot}

pre-destroot

Default: creates directory ${destroot}${prefix}/share/doc/${subport}/examples.

PortGroup ruby allows for efficient porting of ruby-based open source software.

When the ruby PortGroup is declared within a Portfile, the following variables are provided during port install.

ruby.version

The MacPorts Ruby version.

ruby.bin

The Ruby binary location.

ruby.lib

Path to the Ruby vendorlibdir directory (i.e., ${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${ruby.version})

ruby.arch

The name for the Ruby architecture-dependent directory name (i.e., i686-darwin8.10.1).

ruby.archlib

Path to the Ruby vendor archdir (i.e., ${ruby.lib}/${ruby.arch}).

PortGroup xcode allows for efficient porting of Xcode-based opensource software. A minimum Portfile for PortGroup xcode uses defaults for the configuration, build, and destroot phases. It also defines some values for Xcode-based software.

Using PortGroup xcode is a way to make your port able to tolerate Xcode version updates because the PortGroup is tested against all supported Mac OS X and Xcode versions.

Portfiles using PortGroup xcode allow for port authors to set the following keywords in addition to the general Portfile keywords.

xcode.project

The path relative to ${build.dir} and ${destroot.dir} of the Xcode project. If unset, Xcode Tools should be able to determine it automatically. It usually succeeds if there is only a single project in the directory.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    xcode.project ${name}.xcode
xcode.configuration

Project configuration/buildstyle to use.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: Deployment

  • Example:

    xcode.configuration Main
xcode.target

If present, it overrides build.target and destroot.target.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    xcode.target ${name}
xcode.build.settings

Additional settings passed to the xcode build tool during the build phase. These settings should be in the X=Y form.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    xcode.build.settings FRAMEWORK_SEARCH_PATHS=${prefix}/Library/Frameworks
xcode.destroot.type

Type of project that will be installed. This tells the xcode PortGroup how to destroot the project. Correct values are application and framework.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: application

  • Example:

    xcode.destroot.type framework
xcode.destroot.path

Where to install the build product.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: ${frameworks_dir} or ${applications_dir} depending on xcode.destroot.type.

xcode.destroot.settings

Additional settings passed to the xcode build tool during the destroot phase. These settings should be in the X=Y form.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: none

  • Example:

    xcode.destroot.settings SKIP_INSTALL=NO
xcode.universal.settings

Settings passed to the xcode build tool when the +universal variant is selected. These settings should be in the X=Y form.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: ARCHS="${universal_archs}" MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=${universal_target}

xcode.universal.sdk

SDK to use when the +universal variant is selected. The argument may be an absolute path to an SDK, or the canonical name of an SDK.

  • Type: optional

  • Default: ${universal_sysroot}

Portfiles using the xcode PortGroup do not need to define the following variables:

categories

Default: aqua

platforms

Default: macosx

use_configure

Default: no

The following Portfile phase keywords affect the xcode PortGroup in a unique way. In most cases, you will not need to set any of these keywords in the Portfile. See portfile-phase(7)

build.cmd

Default: ${xcodebuildcmd}.

build.target

Default: ""

This variable will be ignored if xcode.target is set.

build.args

Default: build

destroot.cmd

Default: ${xcodebuildcmd}

destroot.target

Default: ""

This variable will be ignored if xcode.target is set.

This chapter contains information about the MacPorts file layout, configuration files, a few fundamental port installation concepts, and the MacPorts APIs.

Name

porthier — layout of the ports filesystems

Description

A map of the filesystem hierarchy used by MacPorts and the ports it installs. Much of it is based on hier(7).

${prefix}

The base of the MacPorts filesystem hierarchy.

Default: /opt/local/

bin/

Common utilities, programming tools, and applications.

etc/

System configuration files and scripts.

include/

Standard C include files.

lib/

Archive libraries.

libexec/

System daemons and system utilities (executed by other programs).

Library/Frameworks/

Native Mac OS X Library Frameworks

sbin/

System programs and administration utilities.

share/

Architecture-independent files.

doc/

Miscellaneous documentation.

examples/

Examples for users and programmers.

info/

GNU Info hypertext system.

locale/

Localization files.

man/

Manual pages.

misc/

Miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text files.

src/

Source code.

var/

Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient and spool files.

db/

Miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific database files.

macports/

MacPorts package building topdir.

build/

Where ports are built and destrooted.

distfiles/

Storage location for the distfiles of fetched ports.

packages/

Obsolete. Formerly contained archives (packages) of installed ports.

receipts/

Obsolete. Formerly contained the registry information and receipts for installed ports, in flat-file format.

registry/

Contains the registry database in sqlite format.

software/

The files for each installed port are stored here.

sources/

Holds the sources for the ports tree (the Portfiles) and also MacPorts base.

spool/

Directory containing output spool files.

log/

Miscellaneous system log files.

run/

System information files describing various information about the system since it was booted.

www/

Files to be served by an http server.

cgi-bin/

Directory for cgi executables.

/Applications/MacPorts/

Native Mac OS X applications.

SEE ALSO

port(1), macports.conf(5), portfile(7), portgroup(7), portstyle(7), hier(7)

AUTHORS

Felix Kroniage

Juan Manuel Palacios

The MacPorts configuration files often do not need to be modified for the general end user. They contain options that may be of use to advanced users and port developers. Some automatically configured options may need to be updated when migrating to a new CPU architecture or a new OS version.

There are three MacPorts configuration files that define important variables used by the MacPorts system: macports.conf, sources.conf, and variants.conf. All MacPorts configurations files are located in ${prefix}/etc/macports.

MacPorts configuration file format is a simple key/value pair separated by either a space or a tab. Lines beginning with '#' are comments, empty lines are ignored.

macports.conf is the configuration file used to bootstrap the MacPorts system. This file is read by the port command and determines how it behaves.

Options locating other .conf files.

sources_conf

Where to find the sources list.

Default: ${prefix}/etc/macports/sources.conf

variants_conf

Where to find global variants definition file (optional).

Default: ${prefix}/etc/macports/variants.conf

Options for MacPorts general operating characteristics.

prefix

Sets the directory where ports are installed. Any path may be used but those with spaces and/or non-ASCII characters should be avoided because it can break some ports.

Default: /opt/local

portdbpath

Directory where MacPorts keeps working data as downloaded sources, installed port receipts, and the main registry. Same path restrictions apply as for '${prefix}'.

Default: ${prefix}/var/macports

portdbformat

Formerly selected the storage type to use for the MacPorts registry: flat or sqlite. Currently, only sqlite can be used.

Default: sqlite

build_arch

The machine architecture to build for in normal use. Options include: ppc, i386, ppc64, x86_64

Default:

(Snow Leopard and later) x86_64 or i386 depending on hardware

(Leopard/Tiger) i386 or ppc depending on hardware

applications_dir

Directory to install MacPorts that install Mac OS X .app bundles.

Default: /Applications/MacPorts

frameworks_dir

Directory to install frameworks installed by ports.

Default: ${prefix}/Library/Frameworks

developer_dir

Directory where Xcode is installed.

Default: /Developer

buildfromsource

Controls whether ports are built from source or downloaded as pre-built archives. Setting to 'always' will never use archives, 'never' will always try to use an archive and fail if one is not available. 'ifneeded' will try to fetch an archive and fall back to building from source if that isn't possible.

Default: ifneeded

portarchivetype

Format of archives in which to store port images. This controls both the type of archive created locally after building from source, and the type to request from remote servers. Changing this will not affect the usability of already installed archives; they can be of any supported type. Supported types are: tgz, tar, tbz, tbz2, tlz, txz, xar, zip, cpgz, cpio

Default: tbz2

configureccache

Use ccache (C/C++ compiler cache) - see http://ccache.samba.org/

Default: no

configuredistcc

Use distcc (distributed compiler) - see http://distcc.samba.org/

Default: no

configurepipe

Use pipes rather than intermediate files when compiling C/C++/etc

Default: yes

buildnicevalue

Lowered scheduling priority (0-20) to use for make when building ports.

Default: 0

buildmakejobs

Number of simultaneous make jobs (commands) to use when building ports. Using 0 will cause a runtime autodetection to use all available processor cores.

Default: 0

portautoclean

Set whether to automatically execute clean after install of ports.

Default: yes

rsync_server

Rsync server from which to fetch MacPorts sources.

Default: rsync.macports.org

rsync_dir

Rsync directory from which to pull the base/ component (infrastructure) of MacPorts.

Default: release/tarballs/base.tar

rsync_options

Rsync options

Default: -rtzv --delete-after

destroot_umask

Umask value to use during the destrooting or a port.

Default: 022

binpath

Sets env(PATH), the directory search path for locating system executables (rsync, tar, etc.) during port installation. Only applications in these directories are available while ports are being installed even if other paths are specified by $PATH in a user's environment.

Default: ${prefix}/bin:${prefix}/sbin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin

Note

The binpath is implicitly defined, but it may be overwritten by defining the variable in macports.conf. However, using a non-default binpath is discouraged and should only be performed by advanced users.

host_blacklist

Space separated list of download hosts that should not be used.

Default: none

Note

This feature is especially useful if a host turns out to be consistently slow and therefore should be excluded for MacPorts' actions.

preferred_hosts

Space separated list of download hosts that should be used preferentially.

Default: none

revupgrade_autorun

Controls whether the rev-upgrade action will be run automatically after upgrading ports.

Default: yes

revupgrade_mode

Controls the rev-upgrade functionality which checks for broken linking and can rebuild ports to fix it. 'rebuild' means ports will automatically be rebuilt when broken linking is detected in their files, while 'report' means broken files will be scanned for and reported but the ports will not be rebuilt.

Default: rebuild

Options for MacPorts Universal Binaries (+universal variant)

universal_archs

The machine architectures to use for +universal variant (multiple entries must be space delimited). Options include: ppc, i386, ppc64, x86_64

Default: x86_64 i386 (ppc i386 for 10.5 and earlier)

Options for StartupItems

startupitem_type

Options for generated startup items, though this may be overridden by the startupitem.type Portfile key. Options are default option, SystemStarter, launchd, or none. For an empty or default option, a startupitem type appropriate to the platform is used; if none, no port startupitems are installed.

Default: default

Other options

extra_env

Extra environment variables to keep. Any variables listed here are added to the list of variables that are not removed from the environment used while processing ports.

Default: none

place_worksymlink

Set whether to place a symlink named work from your ports tree to the build directory of a port, when the port is being built. This is convenient, but may not be ideal if you care about the structure of your ports tree. For example, some developers keep their ports tree synchronized across multiple computers, and don't want to also synch build directories.

Default: yes

This file enables rsync synchronization of the default ports tree with the MacPorts rsync server when either of the commands port selfupdate or port sync are run.

Default: rsync://rsync.macports.org/release/tarballs/ports.tar [default]

Optional local repositories are enabled using a file url: file:///path/to/localportsrepository

This optional file specifies any variants you'd like to be invoked globally. If a variant specified ib this file is not supported by a given Portfile, the variant is simply ignored.

Default: none

MacPorts has a unique ability to allow multiple versions, revisions, and variants of the same port to be installed at the same time, so you may test new port versions without uninstalling a previous working version.

This capability derives from the fact that a MacPorts port by default is not installed into its final or activated location, but rather to an intermediate location that is only made available to other ports and end-users after an activation phase that extracts all its files from the image repository. Deactivating a port only removes the files from their activated locations (usually under ${prefix}) —the deactivated port's image is not disturbed.

The location of an installed port's image can be seen by running:

%% port location PORTNAME

The MacPorts system is composed of three Tcl libraries:

  • MacPorts API - MacPorts public API for handling Portfiles, dependencies, and registry

  • Ports API - API for Portfile parsing and execution

  • pextlib - C extensions to Tcl

The code for the Port API is located in base/src/port1.0. The Port API provides all the primitives required for a Portfile to be parsed, queried, and executed. It also provides a single procedure call that the MacPorts API uses to kick off execution: eval_targets. The port Tcl library supplies these procedures, all of which are generated at run-time using the options procedure in portutil.tcl.

The macports Tcl library loads the Portfile into a sub-interpreter, within which all port-specific code is run. This process ensures that there will never be pollution of the Tcl space of other ports, nor the MacPorts libraries, nor the calling application.

Note

Portfiles are executed in a Tcl interpreter as Tcl code (and not truly parsed strictly speaking), so every Portfile option must be a TCL procedure.

The Ports API performs the following functions:

  • Manages target registrations. All targets register themselves with the Port API. Accordingly, the Port API creates pre-/post-/main overrides for each of the targets.

  • Option/Default handling. All Portfile options (name, version, revision ...) are registered by targets. The Port API creates procedures for these options, and sets up the complex variable traces necessary to support option defaults.

  • Executes target procedures, including the pre/post/main routines.

  • Manages a state file containing information about what variants were specified and what targets have run successfully.

  • Provides essential Portfile Tcl extensions (reinplace, xinstall, etc).

  • Provides simple access to the ui_event mechanism by providing the various ui_ procedures (i.e., ui_msg, ui_error).

The code for the MacPorts API is located in base/src/macports1.0. The MacPorts API provides a public API into the MacPorts system by providing simple primitives for handling Portfiles, dependencies, and registry operations, and exports the MacPorts API for the port command line utility, or any other. The API has very little information about the contents Portfiles; instead, it relies entirely upon the port Tcl library. By keeping the high level API simple and generic, revisions to the underlying ports system will not necessarily require a revision of the high level MacPorts API.

The MacPorts API is also responsible for loading user specified options into a sub-interpreter to be evaluated by the ports API. In that case it sets the variable name in the sub-interpreter and adds the option to the sub-interpreter's global array user_options(). User options are passed as part of the call to mportopen.

The MacPorts API performs the following functions:

  • Dependency support.

    This is implemented in a highly generic fashion, and is used throughout the system. The dependency functions are exported to the Port API, and the Port API uses them to execute targets in the correct order.

  • Dependency processing.

    Software dependencies are handled at this layer using the dependency support layer.

  • UI abstractions.

    UI Abstractions are handled at this layer. Each port action is provided a context, and a mechanism for posting user interface events is exported to the Port API (ui_event).

  • Registry management routines.

    Manages the SQLite port registry in ${prefix}/var/macports/registry/. See also Section 6.5, “The MacPorts Registry”.

  • Exports the MacPorts API for use by client applications.

    The following routines are defined.

    • mportinit: Initializes the MacPorts system. Should be called before trying to use any other procedure.

    • mportsearch: Given a regexp, searches the PortIndex for ports with matching names.

    • mportopen: Given a URI to a port, opens a Portfile and returns an opaque handle to it.

    • mportclose: Given a port handle, closes a Portfile.

    • mportexec: Given a port handle, executes a target (i.e. install).

    • mportinfo: Given a port handle, this returns the PortInfo array (as a flat list of array elements). This is a little tricky and unstable and only used by the portindex command.

    • mportdepends: Given a port handle, returns a list of ports upon which the specified port depends.

For an example of the MacPorts API, when one executes port search cm3, the port utility:

  • Calls the mportsearch function to find all ports containing cm3.

  • Returns Tcl array(s) containing data from the PortIndex: port name, version, revision, variants, etc.

  • Formats the list of arrays in the standard viewing format.

For another MacPorts API example, when one executes port install cm3, the port utility:

  • Calls the mportsearch function to find the first port that matches the name cm3.

  • Calls the mportopen function to open the port.

  • Calls the mportexec function to execute the install target in the port.

  • Calls the mportclose function to close the port.

The pextlib TCL library provides a variety of C extensions to add capabilities to TCL procedures; for example, an interface to flock(2) and mkstemp(3).

This chapter provides an overview of the MacPorts registry and its API. The registry is queried by MacPorts utilities for information about installed ports related to dependencies, port images, and simple user information about what is installed. It provides abstraction over a modular receipt storage layer; where the default format is a SQLite database.

The registry allows MacPorts utilities to:

  • Modify receipts to reflect changes made to installed ports being maintained by MacPorts.

  • Query the global file and dependency databases for file conflicts between a port being installed and a port already installed.

  • Maintain dependency trees of installed ports.

The SQLite registry used by default is located at ${portdbpath}/registry, which by default would be ${prefix}/var/macports/registry. All data is stored in a single file named registry.db, although the additional directory portfiles is used temporarily for extracting stored Portfiles from the registry. Futhermore, access to the registry may be locked using the .registry.lock file with the registry::exclusive_lock and registry::exclusive_unlock APIs.

The legacy flat file registry files are contained in ${portdbpath}/receipts, which by default is location ${prefix}/var/macports/receipts. File mappings and dependency mappings are tracked in the flat file registry by file_map.db and dep_map.bz2. If found, these will be automatically converted to the new SQLite registry.

The MacPorts registry provides a public API in the registry1.0 Tcl package. Using this API listed below you can access the MacPorts Registry using the default receipt storage mechanism chosen in macports.conf.

registry::new_entry {name version {revision 0} {variants ""}}

Begin the creation of a new registry entry for the given port. Returns a reference ID to the registry entry created.

registry::open_entry {name {version 0} {revision 0} {variants ""}}

Opens an existing registry entry. Returns a reference ID to the registry entry that was opened.

registry::entry_exists {name version {revision 0} {variants ""}}

Checks to see if a port exists in the registry. Returns 1 if the entry exists, 0 if not.

registry::write_entry {ref}

Writes the receipt associated with the given reference.

registry::delete_entry {ref}

Deletes the receipt associated with the given reference.

registry::property_store {ref property value}

Store the given value with the property name in the receipt associated with the given reference.

registry::property_retrieve {ref property}

Retrieve the property name from the receipt associated with the given reference. Returns the value of the property, if the property exists.

registry::installed {{name ""} {version ""}}

Get all installed ports, optionally all installed ports matching the given name, or the given name and version. Returns a list of the installed ports.

registry::location {portname portversion}

Returns the physical location the port is installed in on the disk. This is primarily useful for finding out where a port image is installed.

registry::open_file_map {args}

Opens the file map that contains file-port relationships.

registry::file_registered {file}

Returns the name of the port that owns the given file, if the file is registered as installed, and 0 otherwise.

registry::port_registered {name}

Returns a list of all files associated with the given port if that port is installed, and 0 otherwise.

registry::register_file {file port}

Registers the given file in the file map as belonging to the given port.

registry::unregister_file {file}

Removes the file from the file map.

registry::write_file_map {args}

Write the changes to the file map.

registry::open_dep_map {args}

Opens the dependency map that contains port dependency relationships.

registry::fileinfo_for_file {fname}

Returns a list for the given file name representing all data currently known about the file. This is a 6-tuple in the form of:

  1. file path

  2. uid

  3. gid

  4. mode

  5. size

  6. md5 checksum

registry::fileinfo_for_index {flist}

Returns a list of information concerning each file in the given file list, if that file exists in the registry. The information if obtained through registry::fileinfo_for_file

registry::list_depends {name}

Returns a list of all the ports that given port name depends on.

registry::list_dependents {name}

Returns a list of all the ports that depend on the given port name.

registry::register_dep {dep type port}

Registers the given dependency as the given type of dependency with the given port.

registry::unregister_dep {dep type port}

Unregister the given dependency of the given type as a dependency of the given port.

registry::write_dep_map {args}

Write changes to the dependency map.

The MacPorts Project uses a system called Trac to file tickets to report bugs and enhancement requests. Trac also provides an interface to browse the MacPorts Subversion repository. Though anyone may search Trac for tickets, you must register for a Trac account to create tickets.

  • Clean and try again

    If a build fails or is otherwise interrupted, and you try again, MacPorts tries to pick up where it left off. Sometimes this causes new problems, and even if it doesn't, it means that log messages from earlier steps, which can be essential for figuring out why a build failed, are not included in the new log; MacPorts prints Skipping completed in the log for each previously-completed phase that was skipped. Before filing a ticket, sudo port clean the port that failed, then try again.

  • Check the problem hotlist

    The Problem Hotlist contains possible solutions to problems that affect many MacPorts users. If a solution to your problem listed there works, don't file a ticket.

  • Search to see if a Trac ticket has already been filed

    Avoid filing duplicate bugs. Search for duplicates by:

  • Is the problem an application error and not related to compiling and installing?

    In general, application bugs should be reported to the developers of the app (upstream), not MacPorts. An application bug that affects a large number of MacPorts users might merit a MacPorts bug for informational purposes only, but this should be done sparingly.

  • Is the problem with a 'port upgrade' operation?

    If so, try a 'port uninstall foo' and then reinstall. You might also want to run 'port -nR upgrade --force foo' to rebuild ports depending upon port foo.

Once you are logged into Trac, you may click New Ticket and you will be presented with a new ticket window shown in the graphic below. Follow the Trac ticket guidelines below to fill out the form. If you are reporting a failed port install and a log was mentioned in the error, please use the I have files to attach to this ticket checkbox to add that log file to the ticket.

screenshot of a new ticket on the Trac system

There are certain conventions used to ensure that Trac tickets convey as much accurate information as possible so problems and contributions may be acted upon efficiently.

  • Summary: [port] [version] [concise description]

    • Example: "rrdtool @1.2.23 +python Configure error - build failure"

  • Description: All details that might be relevant to someone reading the ticket. Be sure to mention the versions of your operating system and Xcode install. Wiki formatting should be used to ensure that text is formatted correctly. Use the Preview button before submitting. If you want to post preformatted text such as a log or terminal output, make sure you use {{{...}}} around the text or it could break the page layout. Example:


    {{{
    your error message here
    }}}
              

    Submitters are advised to trim inline pastes and logs to what's really relevant to the report, as otherwise overly large ticket pages can become unmanageable. Long output, such as the full log from a port build, should be added as an attachment, not pasted inline. See I have files to attach to this ticket below.

  • Type: There are five types of tickets.

    • defect - The default; any port/MacPorts build/runtime failures and/or documentation corrections.

    • enhancement - Tickets, with or without patches, created to enhance something that isn't failing its intended purpose.

    • update - Tickets, with or without patches, involving updating a port to a newer upstream version.

    • submission - Tickets created to submit Portfiles for software not currently available in MacPorts.

    • request - Tickets created to request the creation of a new port.

  • Priority: Assign a priority level to the ticket.

    • High - Reserved for the use of MacPorts team members, as they are the best fit to determine which reports warrant a higher priority over others.

    • Normal - The default. For normal port failures, non-critical enhancement requests, non-critical port failures.

    • Low - For mostly cosmetic improvements, documentation corrections/improvements, etc.

    • Not set - Anything that doesn't fit the categories high, normal, or low.

  • Milestone: This is a ticket label that indicates that the ticket is intended to be fixed in a particular MacPorts release. Leave it blank; it will be set by a project member if appropriate.

  • Component: Set what part of the MacPorts Project the ticket is to be filed against.

    • base - Tickets related to MacPorts base code.

    • guide - Documentation enhancements and error corrections, or patches to the MacPorts Guide.

    • ports - Tickets related to ports.

    • server/hosting - For MacPorts hosting & server-side issues, reserved for MacPorts PortMgr team members.

    • website - MacPorts website enhancements and error corrections.

    • wiki - MacPorts Wiki enhancements and error corrections.

  • Version: Select the MacPorts version you are using when it is applicable.

  • Keywords: Type any keywords that might help when searching for tickets. It is not useful to list words here that already appear elsewhere in the ticket. Keywords also serve as tags; for example, use tiger if reporting a bug that only affects OS X 10.4, haspatch if a fix is attached to the ticket, maintainer if you are the port's maintainer, or LP64 if reporting an issue that only affects 64-bit platforms.

  • Cc: Anyone else besides the ticket reporter and assignee who would like to be kept involved in the development of the ticket. Multiple email addresses should be separated with a comma and a space (i.e. you@example.org, maintainer@macports.org).

    Most users will not be able to assign tickets. If this applies to you, then when reporting port-related tickets, make sure you add the port's maintainer to cc. Otherwise they may not notice the ticket.

  • Assign To: Only users with commit access can edit this field. If this is not you, see the section on the Cc field above.

    For tickets on ports, enter the email address of the port's maintainer (use port info <portname> to find this). If multiple maintainers are listed, enter the first maintainer's email address here and enter the remainining maintainers' email addresses in the Cc field. Exclude the email address if it appears. If the maintainer's email address is , leave the field blank.

  • Port: For tickets on ports, enter the name of the port (or ports, space-separated, when multiple are affected).

  • I have files to attach to this ticket: Use this checkbox to attach files to the ticket immediately after you create it. Or you can attach files later using the Attach File button.

    If the file you are attaching is larger than 256 KiB, please compress it with bzip2 or gzip first to save space on the server and bandwidth for those downloading it, as Trac will not preview files above that size anyway.

You may contribute new ports and enhancements of any kind to already existing ports using Trac tickets.

Ports are contributed by following these steps. See Ticket Submission Guidelines above for a description of all fields.

  1. Create a Trac ticket.

  2. Set the type to submission.

  3. Set the component to ports.

  4. Attach the Portfile and any required patchfiles to the ticket.

Enhancements to existing ports may comprise new functionality for a given port, bug fixes or even simple version updates. They should always be contributed as Portfile patches. See Ticket Submission Guidelines above for a description of all fields.

  1. Create a Portfile patch with your changes as described in Portfile Development.

  2. Create a Trac ticket.

  3. Set the type to enhancement for miscellaneous enhancements, to defect for bug fixes, or to update for version updates.

  4. Set the component to ports.

  5. Attach your Portfile patch file and any new or changed patch files (don't patch patches) to the ticket.

Port maintainers normally are given commit privileges to the Subversion repository so they can make updates to their own ports as described in Section 7.4, “MacPorts Membership”. However, The MacPorts Project does not restrict commit privileges for maintainers, so before a person other than a port's maintainer updates a port it is a good practice to inform a port's maintainer. See details below.

If you have a port update or bugfix for a port you do not maintain, to respect the rights of the port maintainer you should follow the following guidelines:

  1. If a port's maintainer is , you may feel free to make updates and/or take maintainership of the port.

  2. If a port's maintainer contains the address , this means that the author allows minor updates to the port without contacting him first. But permission should still be sought for major changes.

  3. Create patch file(s) as necessary, attach them to a Trac ticket, and assign the ticket to the maintainer (or Cc him or her, if you are unable to assign tickets).

  4. Wait for a response from the maintainer. The maintainer should apply the patches and close the ticket within 72 hours.

However, for maintained ports without , there are some conditions under which maintainer permission may be waived:

  • If the maintainer does not respond within 72 hours, you or another committer may review the patches and update the port. The log message of this commit must explain that you are taking advantage of maintainer timeout and include a reference to the ticket. If you are not a committer, you may email and request the updates be committed.

  • A port is abandoned by its current maintainer. A port against which a Port Abandoned ticket has been filed (see below) can be updated without contacting the maintainer.

  • A critical port is broken that affects many users.

A port may be considered abandoned if any of the following apply:

  • A bug has not been acknowledged for more than three weeks after a ticket is filed.
  • All tickets filed against the port have been resolved with no input from the maintainer, after the 72-hour timeout, for a significant period of time (at least three weeks). This needs to involve a reasonable number of tickets; one timeout doesn't make a port abandoned.
  • The listed maintainer address bounces, and no alternate way of contacting the maintainer is known.

If you wish to initiate the Port Abandonment protocol and volunteer as the new maintainer:

  1. File a new Trac ticket with the summary line [Port Abandoned] portname.

  2. Refer to the original unacknowledged ticket(s) (if any) in the Port Abandoned ticket.

  3. Further indicate which port is abandoned via the port field in the Port Abandoned ticket.

  4. The Port Abandoned ticket may be closed when the new maintainer is assigned, and the original ticket(s) with the updates may be resolved as usual. The Port Abandoned ticket should stay open for the usual 72-hour timeout period, to give the maintainer one last chance to indicate that they have not actually abandoned the port.

A requirement for a person to become a MacPorts committer is to first become involved and contribute to the project. This may be done by having a record of contribution to the project in several of the following ways:

  • Contributing new ports.

  • Fixing bugs in existing ports.

  • Volunteering as a maintainer of non-maintained ports.

  • Involvement on MacPorts development and/or user support mailing lists.

  • Contributing with documentation.

To apply for MacPorts commit rights, send a brief email to the PortMgr team at entitled “Commit access: Your Name” with the following contents:

  • a description of your application and why you think you deserve commit rights. Include evidence of contributions to MacPorts as described above; at best add direct links to Trac tickets or Trac searches that make the review easier for the PortMgr team.

  • the identity you'd like to use as a member of the project, A.K.A. the “handle”, as part of your handle@macports.org alias.

  • a real e-mail address to which you'd like your MacPorts alias to forward.

The PortMgr team will consider all applications and provide an appropriate response as soon as they get to it.

The MacPorts PortMgr team is the steering group for The MacPorts Project. Its membership is usually determined by public elections among project members; the current members of the team can be found on the MacPorts Developers wiki page. They are responsible for matters such as:

  • approving new project members (i.e. granting commit rights);

  • setting general guidelines for the project;

  • dispute resolution;

  • managing the projects infrastructure; and

  • engineering releases.

MacPorts Guide Terms

activate phase

automake

autoconf

API

BSD Unix

CVS

destroot phase

port binary

build

build phase

checksum

checksum phase

compile

configure

configure phase

dependency

destroot phase

diff

extract phase

fetch phase

free software

global keyword

gunzip

keyword

keyword argument modifier

keyword list modifier

library

MacPorts

A system for compiling, installing, and managing free and open source software comprised of an infrastructure called MacPorts base and a collection of ports. MacPorts current port collection defines the software may be installed.

open source software

patch phase

patch file

pextlib

phase

port

port command

port image

port maintainer

port phase

port phase keyword

PortGroup

Portfile

registry

rsync

selfupdate

shell

StartupItem

Subversion

sync

tar

Tcl

Tcl extension

Trac

Unix

unzip

variant

Xcode Tools

X11

zip